Red or Yellow Fir, or Northern Pine,1 is obtained chiefly from the Baltic or Russia.

Its cross section shows distinct annual rings, the hard portions of which are much darker than the others ; the wood is resinous, and there are no medullary rays visible.

The best timber of this description comes from Memel, Dantzic, and Riga, the balks being from 18 to 45 feet long and 12 to 16 inches square.

Yellow Deals come from the same ports, the best from St. Petersburg, Archangel ; and others from Christiania, and from Gefle and other Swedish ports.

All these are used for carpenters' work, and the best of the deals for joinery.

American Pine

Red Pine,2 so called from the colour of its bark, very like Memel tibmer, and Yellow Pine,3 of a brownish-yellow colour when seasoned, are imported from Canada.

American Yellow Pine is of a very soft and even grain, and can be easily recognised by short, detached, dark, thin hair-streaks running in the direction of the grain, which show upon a planed surface.

It is invaluable for joinery, but is not so strong or durable for carpenters' work as Baltic timber.

Pitch Pine 4 also comes from North America. It has very strongly-marked annual rings, is full of resin when it has not been "bled," hard to work and to wear, very durable except in a moist atmosphere.

It is much used for heavy engineering structures, also for ornamental joinery and for parts, such as heads of steps, sills, etc, subjected to much wear.

Spruce,5 or White Fir, comes both from the north of Europe and from North America.

1 Obtained from the Pinus sylvestris or Scotch Fir.

2 Known also as Canada Red Pine, Pinus rubra, or Pinus resinosa.

3 Pinus slrobus. 4Pinus rigida. 5 Abies excelsa.

The wood is of a yellowish white, with clear annual rings and hard glossy knots, by which it is easily recognised.

It shrinks and warps very much, and is fit only for common joinery and floors, packing-cases, and other common work.

Larch is found in various parts of Europe, the best being in Russia.

It is of a brownish-yellow colour, the hard parts of the rings being reddish. The wood is tough and durable, but shrinks and warps, and is used chiefly for posts and palings.