This timber is from trees found in Norway, in most of the mountainous parts in the north of Europe, in North America, and also in this country.

The peculiarities of the tree, leaves, etc., are given at page 363.

The wood is generally known in this country as white deal.


The wood is of a yellowish-white, or sometimes of a brownish-red colour, becoming of a bluish tint when exposed to the weather. The annual rings are clearly defined, the surface has a silky lustre, and the timber contains a large number of very hard glossy knots, by which it may be easily recognised.

The sapwood is not distinguishable from the heart.


This timber is tough, sometimes fine grained, light, and elastic, difficult to work, especially where the knots occur, shrinks but little, and takes a fine polish.

It, however, shrinks and twists, and warps very much, unless restrained when seasoning, and is wanting in durability.

It is moreover knotty; inferior in strength to the red and yellow pine, not so easily worked, and is apt to snap under a sudden shock.


The deals are used for the coarser descriptions of joinery, cheap flooring boards, etc., for panels, also for packing-cases and other common work where cheapness is the first object.

"White deal" is a nice wood for tops of dressers, shelves, and common tables, but being liable to warp it should not be cut too thin, not under an inch if possible. For sticking mouldings and the finer kinds of joiners' work it is not fit, as the hard knots turn the plane iron."1

The trees being generally straight, strong, and elastic, are used for small spars for ships and boats, for ladders and scaffold poles.

Baltic Spruce comes chiefly from Norway, also Sweden, Russia. and Prussia.

1 Seddon.