Quebec Yellow Pine (Pinus variabilis) is imported chiefly from the place after which it is named. It is used for masts and yards of large ships, but not much for other purposes.

Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida) has its leaves in threes, scales of cones rigid, sharp edges, rough bark.

The best of this timber comes from the southern states of North America, chiefly from the ports of Savannah, Darien, and Pensacola.


The wood has a reddish-white or brown colour; the annual rings are wide, strongly marked, and form beautiful figures when the wood is wrought and varnished.


The timber is very full of resinous matter, which makes it extremely durable, but sticky and difficult to plane. It is hard, heavy, very strong, hard to work, free from knots, but containing a large proportion of sapwood. It is subject to heart and cup shake, and soon rots in a moist atmosphere. The wood is brittle when dry, and its elasticity, strength, and durability are often reduced by the practice of "bleeding" or tapping the tree for the sake of the turpentine it contains. It is too full of resin to take paint well.


Pitch pine is used for the heaviest timber structures in


1st, 2d, and 3d quality,

Dry floated..

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1 From Seddon's Builder's Work.

engineering works, where great strength and lasting properties are required; also by shipbuilders for deep planks; by builders for floors (being very durable under wear), for window sills, and for ornamental joinery of all kinds. The heartwood is good for pumps.

Market forms. - Logs 11 to 18 inches square (averaging 16 inches square) and 20 to nearly 80 feet long; planks 3 to 5 inches thick, 10 to 15 inches wide, and 20 to 45 feet long. As it is subject to heart-shakes and cup-shakes, it is more economical to purchase it in the form of planks when it is required to be used in that form.1