These bricks, introduced by Mr. Jennings, are used for uniting the opposite sides of hollow walls.

The original bricks were straight. A sketch of one is given in Fig. 61. The improved bonding bricks are, however, bent (see Fig. 60), so that water endeavouring to pass from the outer to the inner side of the wall would have to go up an incline.

An illustration of the use of these bricks is given at page 216, Part II.

These bricks are made in four sizes, ranging from No. 4 to No. 7; their dimensions being as follows : -

Bonding Bricks 30055

Fig. 60.

Bonding Bricks 30056

Fig. 61.

Parts of the brick. Sec

Fig. 60.

No. 4.

No. 5.

No. 6.

No. 7.

a b










c d





Wall Facings are made of different patterns, in earthenware and in terra cotta. Those patented by the Broomhall Company are of an L shape, and are used to form a superior facing to walls built of concrete.

Sleeper Blocks, made in stoneware, are useful for carrying floors which are close to the ground in damp situations.

Fig. 62 shows a specimen of one of these, as made by Mr. Jennings. They are made for 9 inch and 4i inch walls, or wall plates.

Bonding Bricks 30057

Fig. 62.

Bonding Bricks 30058

Fig. 63.

Bonding Bricks 30059

Fig. 64.

Chimney-flue Pipes 1 are made in terra cotta, fireclay, etc. These pipes are intended for lining chimney flues, instead of pargetting them (see Part II. page 243).

They are frequently cylindrical, with plain butt joints, sometimes with ordinary sockets, or with the sides of the sockets cut off, as in Fig. 63.

They are made of 9, 10, or 12 inches in diameter, and generally in 2-feet lengths.

These pipes are sometimes oval, or of a section consisting of a rectangle with the corners rounded, as in Fig. 64.

The oblong sections are manufactured by Messrs. Doulton and Co. in three sizes : -

16 x 10 inches. 14 x 9 „ 10 x 6 „

Combined Smoke and Air Flues are made in the form shown in Fig. 65.

These pipes are intended to be built into chimney breasts. The smoke ascends the flue S, while the foul air is drawn off through the flues marked //.

The blocks containing these flues are made in different forms and sizes. In some patterns the smoke flue is circular, 12 inches in diameter, the whole block occupying 18 x 14 inches. In others there is only one air flue, and the whole block takes up only 14 x 91/2 inches in plan.

Chimney Pots of every imaginable design are made in terra cotta. Any attempt to illustrate them in detail would be useless.

Billing's Chimney Terminals, with partitions similar to those described in Part II. page 243, are made in terra cotta by Messrs. Doulton and Co.

Invert Blocks of stoneware for sewers have been mentioned in Part II., and their advantages described.

The best of these are provided with a projecting lip, as shown in Fig. 67, which covers the joint between two adjacent blocks.

Sometimes two or three blocks are combined to form an invert, as in Fig. 66.

Junction Blocks (Fig. 69) are intended to be built into brick sewers to receive pipe drains.

Bonding Bricks 30060

Fig. 65.

1 Sc. Vent-linings.

Bonding Bricks 30061

Fig. 66.

Bonding Bricks 30062

Fig. 67.

They are made either direct as at A, or oblique as at B, to suit the position of the drain.

The blocks vary in pattern so as to fit drains of any size, placed at different angles of inclination.

Bonding Bricks 30063

Fig. 68.

Bonding Bricks 30064

Fig. 69.

Segmental Sewers are made in stoneware of pieces formed to the shape of segments of the circle, and united by groove and tongue joints.

Gulley Traps for streets and yards, Sewer Gas Interceptors, Traps, Sluice Valves, Valve Traps, Channel Pipes for sewage, Conduits, and sanitary apparatus of every form and variety, are made in stoneware, but any detailed description of them is necessarily omitted here for want of space.

The same reason makes it necessary to exclude any description of the various ornamental articles executed in terra cotta, such as dental, dog-tooth, and moulded cornices, trusses, medallions, cornices, moulded arch blocks, lintels, jambs, capitals, pier caps, parapet fittings, terminals, etc. etc.

Stoneware is also made of every form and colour for wall decoration, both external and internal.