This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.

Size in Inches. | Panes in Box. | Size in Inches. | Panes in Box. | Size in Inches. | Panes in Box. | Size in Inches. | Panes in Box. | ||||||||

6 | x | 8 | 150 | 12 | x | 19 | 32 | 16 | x | 20 | 23 | 24 | x | 44 | 7 |

7 | x | 9 | 115 | 12 | x | 20 | 30 | 16 | x | 22 | 20 | 24 | x | 50 | 6 |

8 | x | 10 | 90 | 12 | x | 21 | 29 | 16 | x | 24 | 19 | 24 | x | 56 | 5 |

8 | x | 11 | 82 | 12 | x | 22 | 27 | 16 | x | 30 | 15 | 26 | x | 36 | 8 |

8 | x | 12 | 75 | 12 | x | 23 | 26 | 16 | x | 36 | 12 | 26 | x | 40 | 7 |

9 | x | 10 | 80 | 12 | x | 24 | 25 | 16 | x | 40 | 11 | 26 | x | 48 | 6 |

9 | x | 11 | 72 | 13 | x | 14 | 40 | 18 | x | 20 | 20 | 26 | x | 54 | 5 |

9 | x | 12 | 67 | 13 | x | 15 | 37 | 18 | x | 22 | 18 | 28 | x | 34 | 8 |

9 | x | 13 | 62 | 13 | x | 16 | 35 | 18 | x | 24 | 17 | 28 | x | 40 | 6 |

9 | x | 14 | 57 | 13 | x | 17 | 33 | 18 | x | 26 | 15 | 28 | x | 46 | 6 |

9 | x | 15 | 53 | 13 | x | 18 | 31 | 18 | x | 34 | 12 | 28 | x | 50 | 5 |

9 | x | 16 | 50 | 13 | x | 19 | 29 | 18 | x | 36 | 11 | 30 | x | 40 | 6 |

10 | x | 10 | 72 | 13 | x | 20 | 28 | 18 | x | 40 | 10 | 30 | x | 44 | 4 |

10 | x | 12 | 60 | 13 | x | 21 | 26 | 18 | x | 44 | 9 | 30 | x | 48 | 5 |

10 | x | 13 | 55 | 13 | x | 22 | 25 | 20 | x | 22 | 16 | 30 | x | 54 | 5 |

10 | x | 14 | 52 | 13 | x | 24 | 23 | 20 | x | 24 | 15 | 32 | x | 42 | 5 |

10 | x | 15 | 48 | 14 | x | 15 | 34 | 20 | x | 25 | 14 | 32 | x | 44 | 5 |

10 | x | 16 | 45 | 14 | x | 16 | 32 | 20 | x | 26 | 14 | 32 | x | 46 | 5 |

10 | x | 17 | 42 | 14 | x | 18 | 29 | 20 | x | 28 | 13 | 32 | x | 48 | 5 |

10 | x | 18 | 40 | 14 | x | 19 | 27 | 20 | x | 30 | 12 | 32 | x | 50 | 4 |

11 | x | 11 | 59 | 14 | x | 20 | 26 | 20 | x | 34 | 11 | 32 | x | 54 | 4 |

11 | x | 12 | 55 | 14 | x | 22 | 23 | 20 | x | 36 | 10 | 32 | x | 56 | 4 |

11 | x | 13 | 50 | 14 | x | 24 | 22 | 20 | x | 40 | 9 | 32 | x | 60 | 4 |

11 | x | 14 | 47 | 14 | x | 28 | 18 | 20 | x | 44 | 8 | 34 | x | 40 | 5 |

11 | x | 15 | 44 | 14 | x | 32 | 16 | 20 | x | 50 | 7 | 34 | x | 44 | 5 |

11 | x | 16 | 41 | 14 | x | 36 | 14 | 22 | x | 24 | 14 | 34 | x | 46 | 5 |

11 | x | 17 | 39 | 14 | x | 40 | 13 | 22 | x | 26 | 13 | 34 | x | 50 | 4 |

11 | x | 18 | 36 | 15 | x | 16 | 30 | 22 | x | 28 | 12 | 34 | x | 52 | 4 |

12 | x | 12 | 50 | 15 | x | 18 | 27 | 22 | x | 36 | 9 | 34 | x | 56 | 4 |

12 | x | 13 | 46 | 15 | x | 20 | 24 | 22 | x | 40 | 8 | 36 | x | 44 | 5 |

12 | x | 14 | 43 | 15 | x | 22 | 22 | 22 | x | 50 | 7 | 36 | x | 50 | 4 |

12 | x | 15 | 40 | 15 | x | 24 | 20 | 24 | x | 28 | 11 | 36 | x | 5.; | 4 |

12 | x | 16 | 38 | 15 | x | 30 | 16 | 24 | x | 30 | 10 | 36 | x | 60 | 3 |

12 | x | 17 | 35 | 15 | x | 32 | 15 | 24 | x | 32 | 9 | 36 | x | 64 | 3 |

12 | x | 18 | 33 | 16 | x | 18 | 25 | 24 | x | 36 | 8 | 40 | x | 60 | 3 |

54. Large plate-glass windows are usually designed to have the sash pivoted at the center of the top and bottom rail, if the sash is for one pane, and is too heavy to balance with weights; or, if a muntin or pair of meeting stiles down the center is not an objectionable feature, the sash may be of the form known as the French casements, where the two sashes are hinged to the frame and meet and lock together in the middle like a pair of folding doors.

Fig. 28.

55. Sash making, like all framed work in joinery, is preceded by the preparation of a measuring rod, upon which are laid out the various dimensions. Fig. 28 shows a pair of sashes for a double-hung window, the lights of which are to be 8 in. x 10 in. A rod of proper length, as shown at (a), is first prepared as follows: On one side of the central dividing line is laid off the distance a c, equal to the width of the bottom rail, which in this case is 3 1/2 inches. From c to f is then laid off 3/16 inch for the rabbet, and from f to i is measured 10 1/16 inches for glass; i h is then laid off 3/16 inch for rabbet, and h k is laid off 1/2 inch for the tongue of the astragal; k j is then made 3/16 inch for rabbet, and j m is laid off 10 1/16 inches for glass. The 3/16-inch rabbet is then again laid off from m to /, and lo is 1 1/2 inches for the meeting rail. The upper sash is then laid out in the same way - a rabbet of 3/16 inch at o n, an opening for glass of 10 1/16 inches at n r, another 3/16-inch rabbet rp, a 1/2-inch tongue r s, a rabbet t s, a light s v, and a top rabbet v u; u b is then made 2 inches for the width of the top rail. The top and bottom rails are tenoned into the stiles, and ag and b w are laid out on the rod for a relish.

On the other side of the bar, from c to d, the divisions of the width are laid off in the same manner; d t and cy are each made 2 inches for the width of the stiles, t s and y x are then laid off for rabbet, and t r and y g are each made 1/2 inch for the length of the tenon on the astragals; so and x g are then made 8 1/16 inches for glass and the tongue og is made 1/2 inch.

56. At (b) is shown the side elevation, and at (c) the interior elevation of the two sashes in their relative positions. The upper and lower rails a' and c' are tenoned into a mortise in each stile, as shown dotted at b', and are secured by means of 5/16-inch pins w'. The tenons extend all the way-through the stiles, and are seen on the side of the sash shown at b". The astragals are also tenoned into a mortise sunk into each stile, but extending only 1/2 inch into the wood, as shown at o'. The meeting rails are dovetailed to the stiles, as shown in the side elevation (b), at f" d", and the vertical astragals are mortised into the top and bottom rails, and are themselves mortised to receive the tenons of the cross-bars, as described below.

At (d) is shown the top edge of the lower rail, in the center of which is sunk the mortise a for the astragal; on the ends are seen the tenons c, which are to fit the mortises in the stiles. The molding on the inside of the rail is not mitered in the angle, but is coped over the stile molding, as shown at b and described hereafter.

57. At (e) is shown a section through the meeting rails, which illustrates the method of cutting the dovetails on the stiles to insure a satisfactory joint. The two meeting rails are first planed down to a section of 1 1/4 in. X 2 1/4 in., which would cause them to occupy the positions shown at a b c d and e f g h, but they are afterwards beveled off on the line j k, as explained hereafter. The lower ends of the stiles of the upper sash, and the upper ends of the stiles of the lower sash, are then dovetailed as shown at a d l m and n o p q and at s r e h and v b t u; the dovetail pins l m n o and u t r s are then cut on the meeting rails, and insure a joint which will be unlikely to work loose or shrink out of place after the sashes are hung. On the outside of the lower rail of the upper sash, a rabbet w x m is cut to receive the glass; and on the under side of the upper rail of the lower sash, a groove u y is plowed, to receive the upper edge of the glass in this lower sash.

The thickness of the stiles of the sash is only 1 3/4 inches from a' to b' or from c' to d', while, as stated before, the meeting rail extends nearly 1/2 inch beyond this, or close to the edge of the parting strip. When the sashes are hung, the edge of each meeting rail is planed off to the line j k; so that, when the sashes are closed in the position shown in the illustration, the beveled edges will act as a wedge, and by-insuring a tight joint will tend to prevent the sashes from rattling.

58. At (g) is shown a plan of one of the horizontal bars mortised into a vertical one, thus dividing the sash into four parts. At c is shown the projection of the tenon which enters the mortise in the side of the sash, while the molding on the sash bar is cut out to cope over the molding on the stile as shown at b. The vertical bar is also similarly coped and mortised into the top and bottom rails of each sash, while at its center a mortise is cut entirely through the stuff to receive the tenon on the middle ends of the sash bar. This is more clearly shown at (h), where a b c d is a section through the vertical bar at the center of the joint. At e f g h is seen the portion which is cut through to receive the tenons of the sash bar, and at e k and f l are seen the mitered edges of the upper portion of the square section of the bar, which are so joined as to present a neat appearance, as well as to insure a perfect joint. The upper part of the bar mo is cut out to cope over the molded part of the bar at b I, and the tenon o p q r is inserted in the mortise e f g h, but extends only half way through it, or to the center line t u, leaving the other half of the mortise e t u h for the tenon on the other half of the horizontal bar.

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