This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
45. In the construction of a building, openings are left in the walls which are subsequently to be provided with some form of window frame and sash. The particular form in each case will depend upon the character of the building and the purposes for which the windows are required. In residence structures, the main object is to secure proper light and ventilation, and some form of sash window is used; while in stores and some warehouses, the first-story windows are usually arranged for the display of goods exposed for sale, and the window assumes the character of a glass case without sashes or frames, except such as are necessary to hold the glass in place.
46. Sash windows may be divided into two general classes, namely, fixed sashes and movable sashes, and the latter class may be hinged, pivoted, or balanced, as the case may require. Window sashes vary in thickness according to their size, but in ordinary frame dwellings they seldom exceed 1 3/4 inches. The frames for these windows are generally built in the walls as the building is carried up, and are differently constructed, according to the character of sash they are to carry and the material of the wall in which they are inserted.
47. In Fig. 23 is shown the construction of a window frame for an ordinary frame dwelling. At (a) is the section through one side of the frame showing the stud at the side of the opening at a, the exterior sheathing at b, and the lath and plaster on the interior at e. The pulley stile g is set from 2 to 2 1/2 inches away from the stud a, to provide room for the sash weights i. At f is the exterior sash stop, against which is secured the exterior casing or blind-hanging stile c, which must be of the same thickness as the blinds. The exterior sheathing b is cut flush with the inside of the stud opening, as explained in Carpentry. The casing c is then also secured to the stud a, through the sheathing b, thereby keeping the pulley stile in its place on the outside, while the architrave, or interior casing j performs the same function on the other side of the wall. The pulley stile g is plowed for the parting bead h, and in the groove thus formed, the \ in. x 1 in. parting bead h is inserted as shown, forming a channel for the upper sash to slide in. The lower sash is hung on the inside of this parting bead, and is secured in place by a stop-bead n\\ inches wide and 1/2 inch thick. The stop-bead and parting bead are not secured in place on the pulley stile by means of nails or glue, but are left so that either may be readily removed and the sash may thereby at any time be taken out if required. The parting bead is kept in place simply by the tightness of its fit in the groove in the stile, and by the meeting rails of the sashes, which are fitted around it, as described hereafter. The stop-bead is screwed to the casing, and can be easily removed at any time if desired.
48. At (b) is shown a vertical section of the frame through the sill, and other details of the lower part of the window. The sill m is inclined at a pitch of about 1 1/2 inches to the foot, and its outer edge rests upon the 2-inch sub-sill l, which is inclined at a similar angle, and has its under side grooved to receive the upper edge of the clapboards g or shingles covering the side of the house. At o' is shown the inside casing, or apron, as it is frequently-termed, which is attached to the back of the sill m, and which with the sill cap forms the inside finish of the lower part of the window. The inside casing, or architrave, j', as shown in the sectional plan at j, rests upon the sill cap. The sub-sill l is the detail that forms the bottom of the window on the outside of the house; upon it rests the exterior casing c', which is seen in the sectional plan at c, and which frames the window opening on the outside, in the same manner as does the trimj' on the inside. The sill and sill cap are both carried beyond the casings c and j, and are returned around them and against the walls, as shown at o in the plan (a).
49. At (c) is shown the elevation of the inside face of one of the pulley stiles. The lower part of the pulley stile l' m' is cut out to receive the ends of the sill and sub-sill - the sill extending through the entire thickness of the stile from l' to p', and the sub-sill extending from k' about 2 inches beyond the face of the stile at m'. The 1/2" x 1/2" groove plowed to receive the parting strip h, is shown at u. The depth of the cut-out portion l' p' m' k' is equal to the depth of the groove u, and as shown at u', the groove extends to the bottom of the stile. The upper part of the pulley stile is grooved at b to receive the window head, immediately below which are placed the two pulleys x, x, one for each sash. These pulleys are let into the face of the stile so that the face plates are flush with the inside of the frame, but the wheels extend through to the interior, as shown at x', in the side elevation (e) of the stile. The depth of. the groove to receive the window head is 1/2 inch, as shown at v; the material from v to w extends 2 inches above the window head, to permit the fitting of the frame to the stud opening.
At s t in the elevation (c) is shown an opening to the weight box known as the pocket. This opening is cut out to permit easy access to the weights, in case of renewal of the sash cords, and is closed by means of a bevel-edged board secured in place by screws. In the elevation of the pulley stile at (e),. the pocket cover is shown at s' t', as well as the lines on which the ends are beveled to secure the desired fit. The upper bevel at t' is notched over the shank and under the head of a screw inserted in the back of the stile, as shown at t'. The lower bevel s' is then secured against the bevel of the pocket by means of a screw driven straight through the face of the cover, as shown at s in the elevation (c).