111. These are not strictly a part of the foundations, but are usually made part of the same contract, and built at the same time and in the same manner as the foundation walls.

All window areas should be of good size so as to obstruct the light as little as possible. When small cellar windows are not sunk more than 2 feet below the grade line, a small semicircular area, as shown in Fig. 43, will give the most satisfaction for a small cost. At a is shown the foundation wall of the building; at b, the window and window opening through the wall; at c, the area; and at d, the semicircular area wall, in this case an 8-inch brick wall. When the area is 3 or 4 feet deep and the same in length and width, the brick wall should be at least 12 inches thick, and if a stone wall is built, it should be 18 inches thick.

Window And Entrance Areas 45

Fig. 43.

The coping of areas should be stone flagging laid in cement. This flagging is usually bluestone, granite, or blue Vermont marble, as freestones and all other porous stones are not suitable for area or wall copings. The flagging is generally from 2 to 2 1/2 inches thick, and projects 1 inch over the face of the wall. If good coping stone is found too expensive, Portland cement mortar, made of equal parts of cement and sharp sand, laid on about 1 inch thick, may be used in place of the stone.

112. All areas should, if possible, be drained, in order to dispose of rain water and melted snow. To do this effectually, the bottom of the area should be made of cement mortar, laid in the proportion of 1 part cement to 1 part sand, or of stone flagging, or even of brick laid in cement, and should be carried about 6 inches below the window sill.

If the area is a large one, a small cesspool or sand trap, about 8 inches square, with 4-inch brick walls laid in cement mortar should be built, connected by a 3-inch drain pipe to the main drain. All open well holes and light shafts should have similar traps and drain pipes.

The arrangement for draining an outside area is shown in Fig. 44. At a is seen a cast-iron strainer, which sets over the cesspool a little below the pavement, to prevent rubbish, dead leaves, etc. being washed in the trap and clogging up the drain pipe; this strainer can be lifted out to clean out the cesspool when necessary. At b, the 3-inch drain pipe leaves the cesspool to connect with the main drain or sewer.

Window And Entrance Areas 46

Fig. 41.

At c is the 8-inch brick cesspool; the stone, brick, or cement area pavement is shown at d; while at e are shown the brick risers of the area steps. At fare the stone treads; at g, the stone coping of the area walls; h is the pavement; and k, the stone sill of the door opening on to the area.