This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
1. Joinery, as distinguished from carpentry, relates to that branch of the woodworking trades which deals with those internal and external fittings of a house that are put in place after the rough framework and flooring are finished, such as the floors, skirtings, casings, wainscotings, doors, windows, paneled partitions, stairzvays, etc.
In joiners' work, close-fitting joints, accurate workmanship, and smooth finished surfaces are the chief points in view, as contrasted with the work of the carpenter, whose main object is to provide a frame or skeleton which shall be strong enough to resist any stress to which the building may be subjected, and arranged to comply with the requirements of the finished joinery.
Hence, while the latter deals principally with heavy timbers in the rough, the former uses smaller pieces of finer and more carefully seasoned woods, and joins and fits them with the utmost accuracy. The joiner, therefore, must work with much more care and to a higher degree of finish than the carpenter. All the surfaces he leaves exposed must be smooth and clean, ready for the painter, varnisher, or polisher.
His time is spent between the duties of the workshop and the building. In the workshop, he prepares the framed and paneled work, door frames and casings, window frames and sash, all classes of molded work, the various parts required for stairways, general trim and interior fittings. In the building, he attaches the finished woodwork to the framed base, consisting of false jambs, furring strips, and grounds, all of which the joiner should verify as to correct leveling, plumbing, and alinement before he applies the materials. True, these should have been placed correctly by the carpenter, but the careful joiner will always make an examination of existing conditions, so that he may better meet them intelligently.