This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol4: Plumbing And Gas-Fitting, Heating And Ventilation, Painting And Decorating, Estimating And Calculating Quantities", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
72. Fixtures should be so located in a building that the pipes necessary to supply them with water, and carry off the discharges from them, shall not be run in exposed walls; although in many cases it is safe to run the pipes against the walls, if the pipes are open to the warmth of the room. They should be located in places where light and ventilation are abundant.
Water closets, baths, etc. should not be placed too near windows in cold climates, because there is always a cold down draft near a window, and persons using these fixtures are liable to catch cold by being in contact with the draft while undressed.
Hot-air registers should not be permitted in the floor immediately in front of a water closet, because a current of hot air (which usually cannot be entirely stopped) is disagreeable to the person using the closet.
The fixtures should all be located with a view to the general convenience of the parties who will use them.
The dish-washing, or scullery sink, should be placed convenient to the dining room and kitchen.
The laundry tubs should be convenient to the back yard, or drying room, as the case may be. If located in basements, they should be placed in front of the windows, so that the best light possible may be obtained upon the work. The butler's pantry sink should be conveniently near the dining room, preferably between it and the kitchen.
The water closets, baths, and wash basins should be convenient to the bedrooms. If wash basins are to be placed in bedrooms, care should be taken to place them as far away from the beds, yet as near to the light, as possible, and near the vertical waste stacks into which they will discharge, so that long branch waste pipes may be avoided.
Slop sinks should be placed at points convenient for drawing off water from bedroom urns, etc., and for receiving bedroom slops.
A water closet arranged for servants' use should be located on the ground or basement floor, because most of the servants' time is spent in the lower part of the building. No fixtures should be located in dark or unventilated closets, particularly those in the center of a building, because odors from the closets will diffuse throughout the building and become a dangerous nuisance.
Fixtures on the several floors of tall buildings should be arranged over one another as much as possible, and clustered in vertical rows, so that short branch waste pipes will be required to connect them to a soil-pipe stack common to them all.
Fixtures should not be set over parlors, dining rooms, libraries, or other rooms having valuable furnishings or decorated ceilings, for a leak is liable to do great damage; rather, they should be located over kitchens, sculleries, pantries, closets, etc., so that a leak will do little damage. The soil and waste pipe stacks should not be run in walls adjoining living rooms, because the sound of water falling down these pipes is disagreeable.