4. Sinks are of several varieties; viz., kitchen sinks, butlers' pantry sinks, and slop sinks.

They are made of wood, cast iron, steel, enameled iron, brown glazed earthenware, porcelain, soapstone, slate, etc.

All sinks should be provided with a strainer and waste pipe. The waste pipe should be trapped if it extends to a drain pipe or cesspool; or, even if it is open to the air at the end, it should be trapped to prevent the wind from blowing foul odors back into the house.

5. Kitchen sinks should be placed where there is plenty of light, and as near to the pantry as possible, so as to save steps for the person using them. They should be removed to such a distance from the range that the persons using them will not be subjected to the heat of the fire, and should be set near a window, if possible, to secure plenty of ventilation. Sinks should not be encased in woodwork, but left exposed all around, so that no damp places can be maintained. Care should be taken to avoid leaving any crevice or cranny where dirt can lodge or where vermin may breed. If the sink is furnished with a back of any material, the space behind it should be thoroughly filled with cement or plaster of Paris, or provided with a special air space for a free circulation of air.

Kitchen sinks should be supported by legs, or placed upon substantial brackets, at a height of about 30 1/2 inches above the floor.

Wooden sinks are fitted with a waste pipe A and strainer B, as shown in Fig. 1. The waste pipe is of lead, and is flanged over and secured with copper tacks. The strainer is made of sheet copper, and is sunk flush with the bottom of the sink. Theconnection is made water-tight by setting the flanged end of the pipe in white lead. This connection can be strengthened by wiping a flange around the pipe at C, and fastening it to the woodwork.

Wooden sinks may be lined with sheet metal, preferably copper, weighing 16 to 20 ounces per square foot. The bottom must be secured at several points by brass screws soldered over the top to prevent bulging when heated. Wooden sinks should never be used in dwelling houses because they harbor vermin so easily, and soon acquire a disagreeable odor.

Cast-iron sinks are provided with strainers, and the waste pipe is attached as shown in Fig. 2. The lead waste pipe A is flanged over the conical nozzle G of the sink, and is held in place by the clamp ring B and the bolts C. To prevent water from leaking past the heads of the bolts and trickling down upon the outside of the pipe, washers of rubber or leather are set up tight by the nuts H.

Plumbing Fixtures Sinks 1

Fig. 1.

The size and style of sink required will, of course, depend upon the service it must render, and upon the size and shape of the place in which it is to be set. This can easily be determined by reference to the catalogue of any reliable plumbers' supply house. For ordinary circumstances, a sink 36 inches long by 20 inches wide by 6 inches deep is generally employed. For general plain service galvanized cast-iron roll-rim sinks are usually specified. Porcelain sinks, however, are the best, and should be used on the finest work.

Plumbing Fixtures Sinks 2

Fig. 2.

6. Butlers' pantry sinks are made of various shapes and materials. The most common are made of sheet copper tinned on the inside. They are either struck up from one piece of sheet copper, or are built of two or more pieces.

A copper pantry sink composed of one piece of sheet copper is shown at a, in Fig. 3. It is oval in plan and semioval in section. It is supported by a flange b, which is nailed down to the board c before the hard-wood top d is bedded down and secured in position.

This form of pantry sink is always provided with an overflow horn, as shown at e, and a plug and socket waste connection in the center of the bottom, as at f. This is known as an oval pantry sink.

Plumbing Fixtures Sinks 3

Fig. 3.

Flat-bottomed copper pantry sinks are built from flat pieces of tinned sheet copper. The seams are locked and sweated with soft solder. The bottoms are flat, and the sides are usually slightly rounded at the corners. They are also furnished with a flange a around the top, as in Fig. 4, nailed to a wooden frame b, which prevents the flat sides from bulging. The hard-wood top c is bedded on the frame b with red or white lead putty, and secured with brass screws. The bottom of this sink should be supported by a shelf d, which is scooped out in the center, as shown, so that the bottom may be perfectly drained.

Plumbing Fixtures Sinks 4

Fig. 4.

7. Porcelain pantry sinks are commonly made with a recess A in the back, which affords room for a standing overflow B, Fig. 5. This overflow tube is removable from the socket, and serves as a plug which can be pulled up to let the water out.

These sinks are usually fitted with a marble slab D and marble splash or wall plates E. A dish drainer F, made of wooden slats, or of rubber, is used to protect dishes from contact with the slab. The waste connection is similar to that of a wash basin.

Plumbing Fixtures Sinks 5

Fig. 5.

8. Slop sinks are made of cast iron, plain, galvanized, or enameled, and differ from kitchen sinks chiefly in dimensions; being smaller in length and width, but of greater depth. They are usually set so that their rims are about 20 inches above the floor.

Slop sinks which receive chamber slops and sewage matter are provided with flushing rims and flush tanks, and are cleansed in a manner similar to washout closets. They are constructed with large traps, and are connected to the drain pipes in a manner similar to the connections of water closets. They are often supplied with hot and cold water faucets, similar to those used for sinks.

A slop hopper sink is shown at A, Fig. 6. It is provided with a strainer B, which can be removed to clear the trap below, and is supported directly upon a 4-inch trap C. The outlet end D of the trap is flanged so that it may be attached to a lead waste pipe. It may be had without the flange, when the trap is to be calked into the socket of an iron pipe.

A 2-inch back-vent connection is made to the trap at E.

9. Wood as a material for sinks, has some advantages and many disadvantages. Dishes are less liable to break or chip, by coming into violent contact with it, than with a metal or porcelain sink. But it absorbs greasy liquids and becomes foul, emitting unhealthy odors. It fosters vermin, and becomes leaky from unequal shrinkage. If it is lined with sheet metal, the inner side of the woodwork has no chance to dry out, and it soon rots. If ventilating holes be made in the wooden bottom, they soon become infested with vermin.

The cast-iron sinks, plain or galvanized, seem to answer all requirements. To save the dishes from damage, the bottom of the sink may be covered by a grating of wood or rubber, which can be readily removed and cleaned. Other sinks may be fitted with the same device.

Enameled iron is very fine material for sinks while it is new. But the enamel will crack and admit moisture to the iron beneath, which will oxidize and detach the enamel, causing it to come off in flakes.

Steel sinks are light and cheap, but are not durable. They rust very rapidly. If they are enameled, the enamel on the bottom is soon cracked by the bending of the metal, caused by the weight of dishes in it, and it is soon spoiled, as before explained.

Earthenware or drown glazed sinks are about 1 1/2 inches thick, and are glazed both outside and inside. They are quite heavy, and require an iron frame with legs to properly support them.

Plumbing Fixtures Sinks 6

Fig. 6.

The chief merits of glazed earthenware or porcelain sinks, are (1) they are easily kept clean and free from smell; (2) they are practically imperishable.