1. The duty of a plumber. is to provide dwellings and other buildings with systems of piping, the several objects of which are:

1. To supply and distribute water to convenient points.

2. To receive and conduct away all dirty and refuse water.

3. To conduct away and dispose of all filth, excreta, and other sewage matter, and to remove all noxious odors arising therefrom.

He also provides apparatus for heating water, and for pumping, storing, and measuring cold water, also lavatories and baths, laundry tubs and sinks, water closets and urinals, cesspools, drains, etc.

The comfort and healthfulness of dwellings, especially in towns and cities, depend in a great measure upon the adequacy and thoroughness of the plumbing. And, as the health of the inmates is seriously affected by defective drainage, it is necessary that the work of the plumber shall be thoroughly and conscientiously performed. The general public are profoundly ignorant of the importance of thorough drainage, and in many cases the plumber must protect people against the evil consequences of their own ignorance. In many communities laws have been made which greatly aid him in constructing drainage systems as they should be.

2. In all cases of new buildings, or repairs, or remodeling old buildings, the architect must furnish plans and specifications of the plumbing work, and the plumber is guided by them. Of course, in order to prevent conflict with the health authorities, the plumber must also be controlled to a certain extent by the plumbing ordinances of the city in which the work is to be done. It is well, therefore, that all architects should provide themselves with office copies of the rules and regulations which govern plumbers and plumbing, so that they may be enabled to design the plumbers' work in accordance therewith. A copy, in pamphlet form usually, can be easily obtained by application to the Health Department, the Building Department, or the Plumbing Inspector, as the case may be.

3. It is necessary that the architect should possess a little knowledge of the nature of the materials used in plumbing. He should also become familiar with the mode of performing the necessary operations upon them, both the shop work and the outside work; and he should acquire a clear comprehension of what is necessary to constitute an efficient and satisfactory system of water supply, a safe and reliable system of drainage, and a complete and convenient outfit of fixtures and domestic apparatus.