This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
After the sill is in place, the first floor is usually framed and roughly covered at once, to furnish a surface on which to work, and a sheltered place in the cellar for the storage of tools and materials, after which the framing of the wall is continued. The corner posts are first set up, then the girts and the plate are framed in between them, with the braces at the corners to keep everything in place; and lastly the frame is filled in with studding. The corner posts are pieces 4 X 8 inches, or sometimes two pieces 4 X 4 inches placed close together. Corner posts must be long enough to reach from the sill to the plate. The post is really a part of only one of the two walls which meet at the corner, and in the other wall a "furring stud" of 2X4-inch stuff is placed close up against the post so as to form a solid corner, and give a firm nailing for the lathing in both walls. This arrangement is shown in plan in Fig. 99, A is the corner post, B the furring stud, C the plastering, and D the boarding and shingling on the outside. Sometimes a 4X4-inch piece is used for the corner post and a 2 X 4-inch furring stud is set close against it in each wall to form the solid corner, as shown in plan in Fig. 100; but a 4X 4-inch stick is hardly large enough for the long corner post, and the best practice is to use a 4 X 8-inch piece although in very light framing a 4 X 6-inch piece might be used. A tenon is cut in the foot of the corner post to fit a mortise cut in the sill, and mortises CC, Fig. 101, are cut in the post at the proper level to receive the tenons cut in the girts. Holes must also be bored to receive the pins DD which fasten these members to the post.
Fig. 9S. Built up Sill.
Fig. 99 Plan of Corner Post Details.
Fig. 100. Plan of Another Form of Corner Post.
The braces are often only nailed in place, but it is much better to cut tenons on the braces for pins, as shown at A in Fig. 102. The plate is usually fastened to the posts by means of spikes only, but it may be mortised to receive a tenon cut in the top of the post.
Fig. 101. Details of Tenon Joints for Corners.
Fig. 102. Corner Bracing with Mortise-and-Tenon Joints.
In the case of a balloon frame no mortises need be cut in the posts for the girts or braces, as they are omitted in this frame; but the post must be notched instead, as shown in Fig. 103, to receive the ledger board or ribbon and the light braces which are sometimes used.