This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
The frames and the sash before described, known as "double-hung sash" or "English sash with box frames," are those most commonly employed in the United States and Canada, but there is another kind of sash known as "casement or French" sash which is constructed on a different principle entirely. This sash is hinged at the sides to the frame so as to swing either in or out. The principal objection to this arrangement is the difficulty of making such a sash water- and weather-tight. It is also impossible to use outside fly screens, if the sashes are hung to swing out, and if they are hung to swing in, the weather can penetrate through them much more readily. In Fig. 321 is shown a horizontal section through the side or jamb of a casement window in a frame wall. It will be seen that the outside architrave is similar to the one which was described in connection with the double-hung window, and in this respect there is no difference between the two. There is, however, no box for the accommodation of weights in this case, as no weights are required. The outside architrave is made in a way slightly different from any which have been illustrated before, but this method is equally well adapted for use with the other type of window. As shown at H it is made in two pieces, H being perfectly plain and the molded piece A' worked out of smaller stuff and fastened on to it. It will be noted that the piece K is rabbeted slightly and that the end of the piece H fits into the rabbet in such a way that the joint between the two pieces is hidden from the front, and may open a little without being noticed.
Fig. 319. Window Sash Showing Muntins.
Fig. 320. Section through Muntin.
Fig. 321. Horizontal Section through Jamb of Casement Window.
In the figure, A A are the studs at the sides of the opening, I is the outside boarding and J is the plastering on the inside. B is the frame for the casement window, which in this case is made very thick, 2 1/4 to 2 3/4 inches in thickness, rabbeted 1/2 inch, as shown at E, to receive the sash C. The sash itself is rabbeted and a groove is cut vertically in it, as shown, in order that any rain water which may penetrate the joint at E may be stopped and may run down the groove to the sill without getting inside. D is the stop bead and G is a block which receives the inside architrave F, The sash is hinged at the point E and swings out. In Fig. 322 is shown another method of constructing a casement window so that the sash will swing outward. In this case the sash is placed much nearer the outside of the frame and the frame is made much lighter than in the design shown above. The frame B is made from stuff only 1 3/4 inches thick and is made wide enough to extend in to the plaster line, thus doing away with the block G in Fig. 321. The stop bead D is also omitted. The frame B is rabbeted near the outside edge to a depth of about 3/4 inch to receive the sash C and an extra groove is cut in the frame to receive a half-round molding cut in the edge of the sash. This arrangement is to keep out the weather. The sash C is 1 3/4 inches thick and 2f inches wide. There are, of course, many other ways of constructing these frames and sashes which are more or less elaborate, according as the work is intended to be cheap or good. The designs shown are suitable for ordinary, good work and may be simplified for cheap work.
Fig. 322. Another Form of Casement Window Construction.
Fig. 323. Vertical Section through Sill of Casement Window.
Fig. 323 shows a section taken vertically through the sill of a window of the casement type, which opens out. A is the rough piece which forms the bottom of the rough opening, B is the outside boarding, C is the plastering. D is the sill, and E is the sash. F and G are the inside finish which cover up the rough sill D. It will be seen that the sill D is ploughed on the under side to receive shingles, as was the sill of the double-hung window. It is rabbeted on the top to receive the sash E, and rabbeted again under the sash so that there will be less chance that the drippings from the sash will be driven into the inside by the wind. The under edge of the sash is also ploughed as shown at H in order to catch these drippings if they are blown in. This sill is for a sash which is placed near the outside of the frame, while Fig. 324 shows a sill suitable for a sash placed, as shown in Fig. 321, nearer the inside of the frame. In this figure, E is the sash and D is the sill.
Fig. 324. Another Type of Sill Construction.
Fig. 325. Horizontal Section of Casement Window Opening In.
Fig. 326. Another Construction Similar to Fig. 325.
Fig. 327. Vertical Section Through Bottom of Casement Window Opening In.
The casement windows so far described are for sashes which are made to open out, but casements are also made to open in. Fig. 325 shows a horizontal section through the jamb of such a window frame and sash. A is the sash with a half-round fitting into a mortise in the frame which is rabbeted as well to receive the sash. B is the frame, the sash being placed on the inner edge of the frame. Another method of forming the frame is shown in Fig. 326. Here, as in Fig. 325, A is the sash, and B is the frame which is ploughed as shown at C. This allows the sash to be made without the tenon shown in Fig. 325 and is, therefore, cheaper and easier to make as regards the sash without being any more expensive as regards the frame. The hinges in this case come at the point marked D and they would come in the same position in Fig. 325. In Fig. 327 is shown a vertical section through the bottom of a casement window opening in. It will be seen that the sill B differs but little from the other sills shown before. It is rabbeted on the inside for the reception of the sash A, and at C is shown a special drip piece which is let into the sash and which is ploughed on the bottom so as to receive any drops of water which may be blown under it by the wind. All casement sashes opening in should be provided with something of the kind.