This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Fig. 2 is from a photograph of a wrought iron grille at Lucca in the style of the Italian Renaissance. The drawing to be made from this, the student must consider to be a sketch, the sort of note or memorandum he might make were he before the original.
The accompanying detail gives a suggestion of the proper treatment. The general shape of the whole outline should be indicated and the larger geometric subdivisions; the details of two of the compartments suggested by light lines and those of the remainder either omitted or very slightly suggested. Try to make the drawing suggest the "hammered" quality of the iron. Although the curves are all beautifully felt, there are slight variations in them produced by the hammer, or they are bent out of shape by time, and the thickness of the iron varies sometimes by intention and sometimes by accident. Take care, however, not to exaggerate the freedom of the lines and do not carry the variation so far that curves are distorted.
RESIDENCE IN CLEVELAND, OHIO Watterson & Schneider, Architects, Cleveland, Ohio.
PLATE VI. FIG. 1. Wrought Iron Grille, Prague„.
RESIDENCE IN CLEVELAND, OHIO.
Watterson & Schneider, Architects, Cleveland, Ohio.
PLATE VI. FIG. 1. Wrought Iron Grille, Prague.
PLATE VI. FIG. 2. Wrought Iron Grille, Lucca.
Make the drawing in outline first with a line which breaks occasionally, with portions of the line omitted. This helps to indicate the texture of the iron and suggests its free hand-made character.
That part of the background which in the photograph appears black behind the iron, should be filled in with a tone equal to the dark (D) of the value scale. It should only be placed behind the two compartments which are most carefully drawn, with perhaps an irregular patch of it in the adjoining compartment. In making the background use single pencil strokes, side by side, with the solid ink pencil, very near together or occasionally touching. Give a slight curve to each stroke. The direction of the lines may be either upright, or they may keep the leading direction of the general lines of the pattern, but they should not be stiff or mechanical. If the value is not dark enough another set of lines may be made over the first ones, keeping the same direction. The only parts of the ironwork itself which require shading are those twisted pieces which mark the subdivision, the outer edge, and the clasp. For this use a tone equal to the middle (M) of the value scale. Avoid explaining too carefully the twists and use the shading only in the dark side. Use a few broken outlines on the right side, just enough to suggest it and do not darken the flat piece of iron behind the twists except on the shadow side. Do not count the number of twists but indicate them in their proper size and the effect will be near enough for this kind of a drawing. Shade only those twists which are nearest the compartments which are detailed; from them let the detail gradually die away.
This figure is a rosette made up of the Roman or soft acanthus, and the drawing has the general character of a working drawing. Every part is very clearly expressed in outline, slightly shadowed, and a section explains the exact contours. In drawing the outline of the leaflets, observe that one edge, usually the upper is generally expressed by a simple curve and the other edge by a compound curve, the variation in which, however, is slight. Draw a circle first to contain the outer edge of the rosette and sketch in lightly the main rib or central axis of each leaf. Then block in the general form of the leaves, not showing the subdivisions at edges. Next place the eyes-the small elliptical spots which separate one lobe from another-and draw the main ribs of each lobe, finally detailing the leaflets in each lobe. In shading use the value dark (D) for the darkest values and the middle value (M) for the others, and instead of producing a perfectly blended tone as in the original, let the tone retain some suggestion of lines, the general direction of which should follow that of the main ribs in the leaves. In the shadow of the rosette on the background, let the lines be upright. Lines naturally show less in very dark values than in lighter tones, for it is difficult to produce the darker values without going over the lines with another set and that has a tendency to blend all the lines into a general tone.
Detail of Plate VI, Fig. 3.
Plate VIII is a sculptured frieze ornament introducing various forms of the Roman or soft acanthus. In this as in all scroll drawing, the skeleton of the pattern should be carefully drawn, then the leaves and rosettes disposed upon it. Always draw the big general form of the acanthus, and proceed gradually to the details as described in the directions for Plate VII. This like Plate VII, has the general character of a working drawing, only in this case there is no section. Use the same values and same suggestions for directions of line as in Plate VII.