Pompey (pom'pi). Famous Roman general; born 106 B. C; murdered in Egypt in 48 B. C. Formed with Caesar and Crassus the First Triumvirate, 60 B. C.; later a political rival of Caesar, by whom he was crushed in civil war. A theater of the Roman early period built by Pompey himself.

Porch (porch). A kind of outside vestibule or projecting structure sheltering the entrance to a building. (See Figs. 68 and 74).

Portico (por'ti-ko). The covered space or porch in front of a temple. (See Fig. 102).

Poseidon (po-si'don). God of the Sea, and said to have built the walls of Troy. Worshiped throughout Greece and Italy. Identified with the Roman Neptune.

Posticum (pos-tl'kum). The covered space behind a temple.

Priene (prl-e'ne). An Ionian city situated in Caria, Asia Minor, north of Miletus. Noted for its Ionic Temple of Minerva Polias. (See Plate XLVI and Fig. 93).

Profile (pro'fel or -fil). The largest contour or outline of any object, especially when seen in silhouette. (See Fig. 5).

Projected (pro-jek'ted). Carried out; extended; continued; delineated according to any system of correspondence between the points of a figure and the points of the surface on which the delineation is made.

Prone (pron). Prostrate or lying with face down. (See Fig. 5).

Proportionate (pro-por'shon-ate). Bearing a certain harmonious relation to other members or adjoining parts.

Propylaea (prop-i-le'a), pl. of propylaeum (prop-i-le'um). An important architectural vestibule or entrance to a sacred enclosure, as that of the Acropolis at Athens. (See Fig. 88).

Proscenium (pro-se'ni-um). The stage of a theater; the wall separating the stage from the auditorium. In the Classic theater the wall breaks back and goes across the rear of the stage, completely enclosing the portions of the stage used by the actors, and generally contains three openings through the back or curtained wall-one in the center, and two smaller ones on each side-and one in each end or return of the wall. In the modern theater, the proscenium is that part of the house between the curtain or drop-scene and the orchestra; also, the curtain and the arch or framework that holds it.

Prostyle (pro'stil). Denoting a portico in which the columns stand cut entirely in front of the walls of the building to which it is attached; also denoting a temple or other structure having columns in front only, but across the whole front. (See Plate XXXIII).

Pseudo-dipteral (su-do-dip'te-ral). The term applied to a temple falsely or imperfectly dipteral, the inner range of columns surrounding the cella being omitted. (See Fig. 33).

Pteroma (te-ro'ma). The space between the wall of the cella of a Classical temple or any similar columnar structure, and the pteron or the columns of the peristyle. (See Figs. 33 and 34).

Purlin (pur'lin). Small roof beams resting upon the rafters and running parallel with ridge and eaves.

Pycnostyle (pic'no-stll). A term denoting a colonnade in which the columns stand very close to each other, usually only 1 1/2 diameters being allowed to each intercolumniation. (See Fig. 19).

Pylon (pil'on). A monumental structure forming part of an entrance to an Egyptian temple or other important building, and consisting of a central gateway flanked on each side by a truncated, pyramidal tower with walls covered with sculptures, the pyramidal tower itself being sometimes called a pylon.

Pyramidal (pi-ram'i-dal). Pertaining to, or having the form of, a pyramid.


Quirinal (quir'i-nal). One of the seven hills of Rome, on which is built the former summer Palace of the Popes. Here is the present seat of the Italian Government, the pontifical residence now being the Palace of the Vatican.


Radial (ra'di-al). Shooting out or radiating from a center.

Radius (ra'di-us). A line drawn or extending from the center of a circle to its circumference; the semi-diameter of a circle or sphere.

Rafter (rafter). One of the sloping beams of a roof, running from ridge to eaves, to which is secured the framework or purlins upon which the outer covering is nailed.

Reglet (reg'let). A flat, narrow moulding used to separate members of compartments and panels. (See Fig. 9).

Regula (reg'u-la). A short band or fillet of a length corresponding to the tri-glyphs of the Doric frieze, bearing guttae or drops on the lower side, and placed just below the crowning taenia of the architrave. (See Fig. 7).

Return (re-turn'). The turn and continuation of a moulding, wall, etc., in an opposite or different direction.

Repeal (re-vel). The return at the side of an opening, or at the end of a perpendicular moulding; the vertical face of a window-opening or doorway between the face of the wall and that of the window-frame or door-frame. (See Fig. 84).

Roll (rol). In the Ionic Order, the rounding end of the volute, which rolls up on itself. (See Fig. 61).

Rosette (ro-zet'). A carved, conventionalized imitation of a rose or other design of similar, circular outline, executed in some material. (See Fig. 9).

Running dog (run'ing dog'). A Classic, ornamental moulding, generally used in a frieze or baud, resembling the wave ornament. (See M in Plate XL).

Rusticated (rus'ti-ks-ted). Referring to the treatment of a stone wall surface, where separate blocks are left with a rough-hewn surface projecting from the line of the joints, which are recessed in chamfered or rectangular grooves, and whose width is emphasized. (See Fig, 75).


Saturn (sa'turn). A Roman god to whom was built at Rome an elaborate Corinthian temple.

Scale (skal). A means of proportionate measurement; graduated, especially when employed as a rule, being marked by lines or degrees at regular intervals. (See at lower right corner, Plate II).

Scamozzi (ska-moz'zi). An Italian writer and architect, a follower and pupil of Palladio. (See Fig. 120).