This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Nose, Lips And Chin. We next proceed to the nose, then to the lips, and finally to the chin. You will observe in Illustration No. 25, front view of the subject, the nose appears very square and block-shaped. Compare this figure with Illustration No. 26 and you will readily see the improvement made. The modeling of the nose may be accomplished by building up the high-light side one point higher, or by reducing the shadow side one point lower. The former is done with an HH lead, while the latter is accomplished by scraping away a trifle of the film on the shadow side of the high-light with the etching knife, thereby narrowing the bridge of the nose. In this particular case the high-light was strengthened and the nose straightened by penciling in a straight line along the bridge.
437. In the profile view, Illustration No. 25, the nose appears to have a little hump about the center of the bridge. This will appear much better when straightened, as will be seen in Illustration No. 26. We straightened the bridge of the nose by scraping off the little hump with the etching knife. The lower lip in both front and profile views appears quite set. The lip does not project over the chin, nor does the space between the lip and chin recede a particle. There should be an inward curve above the chin, to give it good lines. Observe that the chin in this subject forms almost a straight line with the lower lip. The recess, or curve, as shown in Illustration No. 26 - the front view - is produced by shaving or scraping a slight shadow underneath the lower lip with the etcher; also slightly outlining the edge of the lower lip. This latter you do with the point of the etching knife, making a faint line only.
438. The profile view of the face, being turned into the shadow, shows the chin in shade; therefore the curve in the chin is supplied with the pencil. By first outlining the curve about midway between the tip of the chin and lip, then coming close to the lip, we penciled away sufficient to connect and continue this curve gradually from lip to chin.
Modeling The Neck. The modeling and blending of the neck is a simple matter when the etching has been all done. As you have a broad surface to work upon, long strokes of the pencil may be employed, using the soft lead where the shadows are quite deep. The shadow shoulder in both illustrations being quite dense, the BB lead was employed for building them up a trifle. To blend these shadows gradually with the higher lights, a great deal more lead was necessary than ordinarily; consequently, after applying all the lead possible, and all that the retouching dope would supply tooth for, the entire negative was flowed with negative varnish and the retouching of the shadows concluded by working on the varnish, which latter supplied ample tooth for the completion of the work.
440. By comparing Illustration No. 27, Figs. 1 and 2, with Illustration No. 24, Figs'. 1 and 2, you will observe that while all lines are modified and all angles removed in Illustration No. 27, yet the likeness of the subject has not been altered in any way.