One may say there is an equal difference between brilliancy and contrast and brilliancy and flatness, and it is quite certain that a negative or a print cannot be either contrasty or flat and still be brilliant in the sense that the word applies to a photograph.
Balance of light and shade has something to do with brilliancy - with the possibility of securing it and the pleasing effect it produces - but it is primarily a matter of the registering of tones in a negative by proper exposure and the selecting of a paper that is capable of reproducing those tones in a print.
We will say for example, that the average well balanced portrait lighting consists of twenty degrees of light intensity or gradation from the highest point of highlight to the deepest shadow.
To secure a negative with the greatest amount of brilliancy, or roundness, as you choose to call it, the exposure must be sufficient to record all of the twenty degrees or gradations of light.
With an exposure so short that only ten degrees of gradation are recorded, the negative will be contrasty. This is a very common fault in negative making that many photographers attempt to correct by using a soft paper.
The harshness of contrast may be materially subdued, but the result is not brilliancy. A greater number of tones cannot be produced because they are not in the negative. Yet the passable result secured in printing is allowed to pass and under-exposure becomes a habit.
With proper exposure of the plate all twenty degrees of gradation are secured in the negative and the result is as round and brilliant as could be desired. The contrasts of the first negative have been reduced 50% in the second, and properly exposed negative, by the addition of ten degres of gradation. And it is of the utmost importance that the paper selected for printing this negative should be one that is capable of reproducing the entire twenty degrees of gradation, otherwise the brilliancy recorded in the negative is lost in the print.
With over-exposure of the negative the twenty degrees of gradation are first registered and then gradually destroyed as exposure proceeds beyond the point where the greatest gradation is secured. Over-exposure often reduces gradation five or even ten degrees, in which case no greater number of tones can be represented in the print than in the case of the contrasty negative.
In such a case it is necessary to resort to a contrasty paper - but again the result is not brilliancy.
FROM 1915 KODAK ADVERTISING CONTEST "All outdoors invites your Kodak"
By H. V. Roberts Utica, N. Y.
It is easy to see that the fault of the negative cannot be corrected by the paper used. Under or over-exposure causes contrast or flatness, and while the softness or contrast of a paper may make a print more pleasing, additional brilliancy is never secured.It is also quite plain that the brilliancy of a perfect negative cannot be recorded in a print if the paper used is either so con-trasty or so soft that it will not produce a scale of gradation equal to that of the negative.
Artura has the longest scale of gradation of any developing-out paper on the market. It will produce the most brilliant print it is possible to secure from a brilliant negative. It has sufficient latitude to secure more, or less contrast, where negative quality varies within reason, but the best print results are secured from properly exposed and developed negatives.
If your negative and print qual-ity are both at fault, the foregoing may point out your error. Your negatives of a few years ago may also help you to see the errors of your negatives of to-day.
Royal Polychrome Plates will help you to secure better negatives from difficult commercial subjects.
CORE PLATE DEVELOPING RACKS
For the portrait or commercial photographer who has large quantities of work the Core Plate Developing Racks will be found a great convenience in tank development, not only in handling the plates in the developer but in subsequent handling as well. Plates may be developed, fixed, washed and dried without being removed from the racks.
The plate may be examined during development without touching the gelatine emulsion, lifting it from the developing or fixing tank in its metal rack. The danger of finger marks is entirely removed, and as the top does not go down into the solution there is no need of putting one's finger in the developer.
As will be seen by our illustration, the rack is of very simple construction, the sides forming a groove which holds the plate as it is slid in from the top.
FROM 1915 KODAK ADVERTISING CONTEST
"'There are no game laws for those who hunt with a Kodak"
By John Baldridge Waldron, Mich.
The top bar is a flat strip of metal which projects beyond the rack proper and rests on the edge of the tanks used for developing, fixing and washing.
There is sufficient space between the top bar and the plate to allow it to be covered by the solutions at all times, also to be conveniently handled when it is being examined.
After the plates have been developed, fixed and washed, they may be set in drying racks or hung up to dry without being removed from the developing racks.The metal used in these racks is non-corrosive and as the rack is used for washing as well as developing, the rack and plate are washed at the same time. These racks may be used in any developing tank of proper width. Movable cross bars may be made for large tanks and these can be placed the proper distance apart to take any sized rack.
Core Plate Developing Racks
Width of Rack
Width of Top Bar
4¼ x 6½ 4¾ x 6½
8⅞ in. . .
5 x 7
9⅜ in. . .
6½ x 8½
10⅞ in. . .
8 x l0
12⅜ in. . .
8 x l0 10 x l2
12⅜ in. . .
11 x l4 14 x 17
| 14 in.
16 in. . .
F. (). B. Rochester, N. Y.
EASTMAN FILM DEVELOPING BOX No. 2
As with plates, the tank method of developing Portrait Films has been found most satisfactory and convenient and is now in use by most film workers.
The Eastman Film Developing Box for 8 x 10 or 5 x 7 films created a demand for a smaller box that would hold only the 5 x 7 size. This will be known as the Eastman Film Developing Box No. 2.
The box is made of hard rubber and will accommodate six 5 x 7 films in the Film Developing Holders which are furnished for tank development. The holders fit in grooves in the ends of the box. These grooves prevent the holders from moving about and keep the films separated during development.
While this box is made for the development of film, it may also be used for developing plates in the Core Plate Developing Racks It will conveniently hold a dozen plates in these racks and allow room for moving them about sufficiently to agitate the developer.
FROM 1915 KODAK ADVERTISING CONTEST "Write it on the film - at the time''''
By Chas. E. Mace Estes Park, Colo.
Eastman Film Developing Box No. 2 ... . $3.00
F. O. B. Rochester, N. Y.