The difference between really good and merely ordinary portrait work will usually be found in the quality of the highlights. Just as the spot-light, turned on some one performer, makes that individual the center of attraction, so should the highlight of the portrait contain something of quality to make it the center of attraction.

In portraiture the highlights are so placed as to center interest on the face, for it is the character of the face that receives the most of the artist's attention. If the attention wanders from the face, the composition of the picture should be such that attention is brought back to that point, but a mere highlight - a blank white space, will not hold interest. There must be something of interest in the highlight area.

The first purpose of the highlight is to attract attention, the second purpose, to indicate form. If an object has roundness, and is lighted from a single source, a highlight will appear on the point nearest the light and this will gradually blend into the shadows giving, on the flat surface of the picture, an indication of roundness. If the object is flat it will be uniformly lighted and will appear flat.

To secure the effect of roundness the light must be properly directed. A round object can be made to appear flat by lighting it equally from all sides.

Highlight Quality Of Film Negatives StudioLightMagazine1918 118

FROM AN ARTURA IRIS PRINT

By Charles Brandenburg New York, N. Y.

Once the subject is properly lighted correct exposure of the photographic film or plate is of next importance. The negative should correctly represent the values of lights and shadows of the subject, by which we mean that if the highest light is twenty-five times as bright as the deepest shadow, the negative should show the same contrast.

No sensitive material will reproduce the same range of contrast in an under-exposure as in a correct exposure. It s much the same as starting a motor. A given amount of power does not produce a proportionate number of revolutions per second in starting as additional power produces when the motor is running at good speed.

After the range of under-exposure is passed there is a stretch of latitude in which contrast increases proportionately with exposure. If two seconds is the shortest correct exposure, a certain contrast between highlights and shadows is produced which corresponds with the contrast of the lighting of the subject.

If three, four, five, six, seven or eight seconds exposure will increase the density of the negative proportionately in shadow and highlight, the range of contrasts remaining exactly the same, then any exposure from two to right seconds will be correct and will represent the latitude of the film or plate used.

Then comes the period of overexposure in which the contrasts begin to flatten out. This is because a highlight can become just so opaque and no more. Increased exposure will gradually increase the densities of the halftones and shadows until finally all contrast is lost and the negative becomes entirely opaque.

There should be considerable gradation within a highlight. It should have texture and form - should represent something. It is readily seen that under and over-exposures each destroy highlight quality, also that great latitude in sensitive material enables the photographer to secure a greater percentage of correct exposures in which highlight quality is preserved.

The speed of Eastman Portrait Film is such that the danger of under-exposure and the resulting poor highlight quality is minimized.

The latitude of Eastman Portrait Film is so great that practically any range of contrast may be truthfully reproduced, while with the average range of contrast of portrait lightings, the scale of the film is so long that exposures up to four, five or six times normal may be made without loss of quality in highlights or shadows.

Highlight Quality Of Film Negatives StudioLightMagazine1918 120

FROM AN ARTURA IRIS PRINT

By Charles Brandenburg New York, N. Y.

Speed and latitude are important aids to correct exposure and much of the quality of highlights depends upon correct exposure. Development also plays an important part, though there is little excuse for over or underdevelopment of a properly exposed negative. Of greatest importance in preserving highlight quality, however, is the non-halation property of film.

The quality of a sensitive emulsion has everything to do with correct reproduction, but the slightest amount of halation will destroy highlight quality.

Eastman Portrait Film will reproduce the most brilliant lightings and is sufficiently non-halation to retain all the brilliancy. This explains film quality - accounts for the superiority of films over plates.

Highlights should have form and texture - should be made up of points of light with intervening shadows. But wherever a point of light strikes the emulsion of a glass plate it not only goes through but is reflected back. As it has the thickness of the glass in which to spread it is readily seen that this reflected light destroys those very small shadows which give detail and brilliancy in a highlight.

Because this halation is something you do not see it is none the less real. Because you may never have had negatives with the brilliant highlights that Portrait Films produce, is no reason for not adding this quality to your work.

Portrait Films will enable you to make better negatives at no greater expense.