If a creditor voluntarily releases his debtor, it is nearly if not quite universally agreed that a new promise by the debtor is not binding without new consideration. Even courts which are disposed to accept the doctrine of moral consideration would hold that no moral obligation lay upon the debtor thus voluntarily released, and courts which assert as a principle that a new promise is only effectual to revive a previously existing debt barred by some rule of law would hold that the bar created by a voluntary release is not within the scope of the rule. Accordingly if creditors enter into a common-law composition with their debtor,95 or otherwise voluntarily discharge any debt by release96 or accord and satisfaction97 a subsequent promise by the debtor to pay all or any portion of the debt which was not paid in the previous settlement cannot be enforced.

Reeves, 227 U. S. 625, 57 L. Ed. 676, 33 S. Ct. 365; Re Sweetser, 128 Fed. 165; Griel v. Solomon, 82 Ala. 85, 2 So. 322, 60 Am. Rep. 733; Lanagin v. Nowland, 44 Ark. 84; Bank of Elberton v. Vickery, 20 Ga. App. 96,92 8. E. 547; Knapp v. Hoyt, 57 Ia. 591, 10 N. W. 925; Corliss v. Shepherd, 28 Me. 550; Otis v. Gailin, 31 Me. 567; Old Town Nat. Bank v. Parker, 121 Md. 61, 87 Atl. 1105; Lerow v. Wilmarth, 7 Allen, 463, 83 Am. Dec. 701; Wiggin v. Hodg-don, 63 N, H. 39; Stilwell v. Coope, 4 Coope, 225; Jersey City Ins. Co. v. Archer, 122 N. Y. 376, 25 N. E. 338; Fraley v. Kelly, 67 N. C. 78; Hornthal v. McRae, 67 N. C. 21; Hill v. Trainer, 49 Wis. 537, 6 N. W. 926. But see contra Thornton v. Nichols, 119 Ga. 50, 45 S. E. 785; Odgen v. Redd, 13 Bush, 581; Graves v. McGuire, 79 Ky. 532; Holt v. Akannan, 84 N. J. L. 371, 86 Atl. 408.

93 Kingston v, Wharton, 2 S. ft R. 208, 7 Am. Dec 638; Haines v. Staffer, 13 Pa. 641, 63 Am. Dec. 493.

94Thornton v. Nichols, 119 Ga. 90, 45 S. E. 785; Reed v. Frederick, 8

Gray, 230; Lowell on Bankruptcy, Sec.249. In Cheney v. Barge, 26 111. App. 182, a new promise mailed before the beginning of proceedings but received after adjudication was held enforceable.

95 Ex parte Hall, 1 Deac. 171; Samuel v. Fairgrieve, 21 Ont. App. 418; Ras-mussen v. State Bank, 11 Col. 301, 18 Pac. 28; Grant v. Porter, 63 N. H. 229; Lewis v. Simons, 1 Handy, 82; Callahan v. Ackley, 9 Phils.. 99; Taylor v. Skiles, n3Tenn.288,81S.W.1258. Compare decisions as to compositions under bankruptcy proceedings, supra, Sec. 158, n. 82 ad fin.

96 Warren v. Whitney, 24 Me. 661, 41 Am. Dec. 406; Phelps v. Dennett, 57 Me. 491; Ingersoll v. Martin, 58 Md. 67, 42 Am. Rep. 322; Hall v. Rice, 124 Mass. 292; Mason v. Campbell, 27 Minn. 54, 6 N. W. 405; Zoebisch v. Von Minden, 47 Hun, 213 (see S. C. 120 N. Y. 406, 24 N. E. 795); Snevily v. Read, 9 Watts, 396; Shepard v. Rhodes, 7 R. I. 470, 84 Am. Dec. 573. But see contra Jamison v. Ludlow, 3 La. Ann. 492; Willing v. Peters, 12 S. & R. 177.