None of the earlier cases which allowed a right of action to one who was not a party to the contract related to contracts under seal, and where statutes have not taken away the importance of the distinction between sealed and parol contracts the rule that one who is not a party to a contract under seal cannot sue upon it is still applied to contracts to benefit or pay a debt to a third person.23 But in some States the rules of the common law distinguishing contracts under seal from other written contracts have been abolished or diminished, so that it is not surprising that the distinction as to the right of a third person to sue has often been disregarded.24

22In Green . Stone, 54 N. J. Eq. 387, 34 Atl. 1000, 55 Am. St. Rep. 577, the curt held that the defence that the clause assuming payment of a mortgage was inserted in a deed by mistake must be asserted by a cross bill to which the promisee must be made a party.

23 Hendrick v. Lindsay, 93 U. 8.143, 23 L. Ed. 855; Willard v. Wood, 135 U. S. 309,10 S. Ct. 831,34 L. Ed. 210, 311, 313; 164 U. S. 502, 17 S. Ct. 176, 41 L. Ed. 531; Douglass v. Branch Bank, 19 Ala. 659; Hunter v. Wilson, 21 Fla. 250,262; Gunter v. Mooney, 72 Ga. 205; Moore v. House, 64 111. 162; Gauttert v. Hoge, 73 111. 30; Harms v. McCormick, 132 111. 104,109, 22 N. E. 611 (now changed by statute); Hinkley v. Fowler, 15 Me. 285; Farmington v. Hobart, 74 Me. 416; Seigman v. Hof-facker, 57 Md. 321; Montague v. Smith, 13 Man. 396; Millard v. Baldwin, 3 Gray, 484; Robb v. Mudge, 14 Gray, 534, 538; Flynn p. North American Life Ins. Co., 115 Mass. 449, 27 N. J. Eq. 152; Joslin p. New Jersey Car Spring Co., 36 N. J. L. 141,146; Cocks p. Vamey, 45 N. J. Eq. 72,17 Atl. 108; Styles v. Long Co., 67 N. J. L. 413, 418,

51 Atl. 710 (but by Stat., of 1898 the rule was extended to sealed contracts. ibid.). Lee p. Newman, 55 Miss. 365, 374; How v. How, 1 N. H. 49; Stro-hecker v. Grant, 16 S. & R. 237; De Bolle v. Pennsylvania Ins. Co., 4 Whart. 68, 33 Am. Dec 38; Mississippi R. R. Co. v. Southern Assoc., 8 Phila. 107; McAlister v. Marberry, 4 Humph. 426; Fairchild v. North Eastern Assoc., 51 Vt. 613; Jones p. Thomas, 21 Gratt. 96, 101 (now changed by statute); McCart-eney v. Wyoming Nat. Bank, 1 Wyo. 382.

24Central Trust Co. p. Berwind-Wbite Co., 95 Fed. Rep. 391; Starbird v. Cranston, 24 Col. 20, 48 Pac. 652; Webster v. Fleming, 178 111. 140, 52 N. E. 975; Tapscott p. McVey, 83 N. J. L. 747,85 Atl. 343; Harts v. Emery, 184 111. 560, 56 N. E. 865; Hartman v. Pislorius, 248 111. 568, 94 N. E. 131; Robinson v. Holmes, 75 111. App. 203; American Splane Co. v. Barber, 91 111. App. 359; Torpe v. John, 177 111. App. 85; Jefferson v. Asch, 53 Minn. 446, 55 N. W. 604, 25 L. R. A. 257, 39 Am. St. Rep. 618; Rogers v. Gosnell, 51 Mo. 466, 58 Mo. 589; Van Schaick v. Railroad, 38 N. Y. 346; Coster v.