The distinction between contract and tort has been confused still further by the fact that in some cases of tort the injured party is permitted to bring the action of assumpsit upon such facts as if it were a contract. The promise in such a case is, of course, a mere fiction. Such a form of action is permitted so as to give a more desirable remedy to the injured party. The question is discussed in detail elsewhere.1

Elevator Co. v. Whitbeck, 63 Kan. 102, 88 Am. St Rep. 229, 64 Ac. 984.

Maine. Pulsifer v. Greene, 96 Me. 438, 52 Atl. 921.

Massachusetts. Converse v. Nichols, 202 Mass. 270, 89 N. E. 135.

Michigan. Foster v. Bow, 120 Mich. 1, 77 Am. St. Rep. 565, 79 N. W. 696.

Ohio. Kulp v. Fleming, 65 0. S. 321, 87 Am. St. Rep. 611, 62 N. E. 334; Blair v. Newbegin, 65 0. S. 425, 58 L.R.A. 644, 62 N. E. 1040.

New Hampshire. Contra, Crippen V. Laighton, 69 N. H. 540, 76 Am. St. Rep. 192, 46 L. R. A. 467, 44 Atl. 538.

New York. Marshall v. Sherman, 148 N. Y. 9, 51 Am. St. Rep. 654, 34 L. R. A. 757, 42 N. E. 419.

Rhode Island. Hancock National Bank v. Farnum, 20 B. I. 466, 40 Atl. 341:

Upon this question, see Liability of Stockholders, by Morris W. Seymour, 1 Yale Law Journal, 245; The Grounds of the Equitable Liability of Stockholders, by Geo. B. Barrows, 13 Yale Law Journal, 66; Extra-territorial Enforcement of Statutes Imposing Double

Liability upon Stockholders, by Arthur K. Kuhn, 17 Yale Law Journal, 457; Individual Liability of Non-resident) Stockholders and Officers, by Conrad Reno, 28 American Law Review, 518; The Nature of the Liability of Shareholders of a Corporation under Statutes Imposing a Liability Additional to that for Stock Subscribed, by Samuel M. Israeli, 39 American Law Register (N.S.) 586; Personal Liability of Stockholders in an Unregistered Foreign Corporation, by George Albert Drovin, 4 American Law Register (N.S.) 464.

6 Harty Bros. & Harty Co. v. Polakow, 237 111. 559, 86 N. E. 1085.

7 "A statute liability wants all the elements of a contract, consideration and mutuality, as well as assent of the party": McCoun v. R. R., 50 N. Y. 176, 180; quoted in Morley v. By., 146 U. S. 162, 36 L. ed. 925.

8 See Sec. 1130 et seq.

9 State v. Hunter, 124 la. 569, 104 Am. St. Rep. 361, 100 N. W. 510. 1 See Sec. 840 et seq.