In discussing the practical application of the foregoing principles to particular states of fact, we find that the most usual type of this contract exists where B has conveyed property to A and in consideration thereof A promises to B to discharge a debt due from B to C. If B conveys property or pays money to A. and in consideration thereof A promises to discharge a debt due from B to C, C can maintain an action against A.1

47 Ewell v. Best, - Ky. - , 198 S. W. 4.

1 United States. Blackmore v. Parkes, 81 Fed. 899, 26 C. C. A. 670; Barker v. Car Co., 124 Fed. 655.

Alabama. North Alabama Development Co. v. Short (Ala.), 13 So. 385; Aultman v. Fletcher, 110 Ala. 452, 18 So. 215.

California. Meyer v. Parsons, 129 Cal. 653. 62 Pac. 216; Tevis v. Savage, 130 Cal. 411, 62 Pac. 611; Washer v. Independent Mining & Development Co., 142 Cal. 702, 76 Pac. 654.

Colorado. Hastings v. Pringle, 37 Colo. 86, 80 Pac. 93.

Florida. American Lead Pencil Co. v. Wolfe, 30 Fla. 360, 11 So. 488.

Idaho. Smith v. Caldwell, 6 Ida. 436, 55 Pac. 1065.

Illinois. Commercial National Bank v. Kirkwood, 172 111. 563. 50 N. E. 219 [revereing, 68 111. App. 116]; Scudder v. Carter, 43 111. App. 252.

Indiana. Bateman v. Butler, 124 Ind. 223, 24 N. E. 989; William Deering v. Armstrong, 1'4 Ind. App. 44, 42 N. E. 372; Oldenburg v. Baird, 26 Ind. App. 379, 58 N. E. 1073.

Kentucky. Mudd v. Cariee, 104 Ky. 719. 47 S. W. 1080; Blakeley v. Adams, 113 Ky. 392, 68 S. W. 393.

Maine. Watson v. Perrigo, 87 Me. 202, 32 Atl. 876; Coffin v. Bradbury. 89 Me. 476, 36 Atl. 988.

Minnesota. Maxfield v. Schwartz. 43 Minn. 221, 45 N. W. 429; Lovejoy v. Howe. 65 Minn. 353, 57 N. W. 57.

Mississippi Barnes v. Jones, 111 Mfes. 337, 71 So. 573.

Missouri Salmon Falls Bank v. Leyser, 116 Mo. 51, 22 S. W. 504; State v. Ry., 126 Mo. 328, 28 S. W. 1074; Porter v. Woods, 138 Mo. 539, 39 S. W. 794.

Nebraska. Barnett v. Pratt, 37 Neb. 349. 55 N. W. 1050.

Nevada. Wills v. Bank, 23 Nev. 59, 42 Pac. 490.

New York. Thorp v. Coal Co., 48 N. Y. 253; Zeiser v. Cohn, 207 N. Y. 407, 47 L. R. A. (N.S.) 186, 101 N. E. 184.

Oklahoma. Sanderson v. Turner, - Okla. - . 2 A. L. R. 347, 174 Pae. 763.

Oregon. Strong v. Kamm, 13 Or. 172, 9 Pac. 331; Feldman v. McGuire, 34 Or. 309, 55 Pac. 872.

Pennsylvania. Townsend v. Long, 77 Pa. St. 143, 18 Am. Rep. 438; Sargent v. Johns, 206 Pa. St. 386, 55 Atl. 1051; Cox v. Philadelphia Pottery Co., 214 Pa. St. 373. 63 Atl. 749.

Rhode Island. Urquhart v. Brayton, 12 R. I. 169; Wood v. Moriarty, 15 R. I. 518, 9 Atl. 427.

One of the most common cases of this class exists where A, the grantee, assumes and agrees to pay a debt secured by a mortgage on the realty conveyed to him.2 So if a mortgagee retains out of the loan made by him to the mortgagor enough to pay a prior mortgage, and promises mortgagor to pay such prior mortgage debt, the assignee of such debt may maintain an action against the second mortgagee on such promise.3

Texas. Morris v. Gaines, 82 Tex. 255, 17 S. W. 538; Mathonican v. Scott, 87 Tex. 396, 28 S. W. 1063.

Vermont. Keyes v. Allen, 65 Vt. 667, 27 Atl. 319.

Virginia. Skinker v. Armstrong, 86 Va. 1011, 11 S. E. 977; Moore v. Triplets 96 Va. 603, 70 Am. St. Rep. 882, 32 S. E. 50; Cosmopolitan Life Association v. Loegel, 104 Va. 619, 52 S. E. 166.

Washington. Gilmore v. Box Factory, 20 Wash. 703, 56 Pac. 934; Dimmick v. Collins, 24 Wash. 78, 63 Pac. 1101.

Wisconsin. Bassett v. Hughes, 43 Wis. 319; Fulmer v. Wightman, 87 Wis. 573, 58 N. W. 1106; Green v. Hadfleld, 89 Wis. 138, 61 N. W. 310; Lessel v. Zillmer, 105 Wis. 334, 81 N. W. 403; Fanning v. Murphy, 126 Wis. 538, 110 Am. St. Rep. 946, 4 L. R. A. (N.S.) 666, 105 N. W. 1056.

2 United States. Keller v. Ashford, 133 U. S. 610, 33 L. ed. 667; Johns v. Wilson, 180 U. S. 440, 45 L. ed. 613; North Alabama Development Co. v. Oman, 55 Fed. 18, 5 C. C. A. 22; Central Trust Co. v. Coal Co., 9o Fed. 391.

Colorado. Stuyvesant v. Western Mortgage Co., 22 Colo. 28, 43 Pac. 144; Hastings v. Pringle, 37 Colo. 86, 86 Pac. 93; Mulvany v. Gross, 1 Colo. App. 112,27 Pac. 878.

Connecticut. Tuttle v. Armsiead, 53 Conn. 175, 22 Atl. 677.

Illinois. Fish v. Glover, 154 111. 86, 39 N. E. 1081; Webster v. Fleming, 178 111. 140, 52 N. E. 975; Harts v. Emery, 184 111. 560, 56 N. E. 865.

Indiana. Lowe v. Hamilton, 132 Ind. 406, 31 N. E. 1117; Stuckman v. Rooee, 147 Ind. 402, 46 N. E. 680.

Iowa. Marble Savings Bank v.

Mesarvey, 101 Ia. 285, 70 N. W. 198; Beeson v. Green, 103 Ia. 406, 72 N. W 555.

Kansas. Stevenson v. Elliott, 53 Kan. 560, 36 Pac. 980.

Maine. Flint v. Land Co., 89 Me. 420, 36 Atl. 634; Cumberland National Bank v. St. Clair, 93 Me. 35, 44 Atl. 123.

Minnesota. Hine v. Myrick, 60 Minn. 518, 62 N. W. 1125.

Missouri. Pratt v. Conway, 148 Mo. 291, 71 Am. St. Rep. 602, 49 S.W. 1028.

Nebraska. Reynolds v. Dietz, 39 Neb. 180, 58 N. W. 89; Kendall v. Garneau, 56 Neb. 403, 75 N. W. 852.

New Jersey. Green v. Stone, 54 N. J Eq. 387, 56 Am. St. Rep. 577, 34 Atl. 1099 [reversing, 32 Atl. 706; Wager v. Link, 134 N. Y. 122, 31 N. E. 213].

New York. New York Life Ins. Co. v. Aitkin, 125 N. Y. 660, 26 N. E. 732.

North Dakota. Moore v. Booker, 4 N. D. 543, 62 N. W. 607.

Ohio. Thompson v. Thompson, 4 O. S. 333; Society of Friends v. Haines, 47 O. S. 423, 25 N. E. 119; Poe v. Dixon, 60 O. S. 133; 71 Am. St. Rep. 713, 64 N. E. 86.

Oregon. Windle v. Hughes, 40 Or. 1, 65 Pac. 1058.

Pennsylvania. Merriman v. Moore, 90 Pa. St 78; Blood v. Levick Co., 177 Pa. St. 606, 55 Am. St. Rep. 741, 35 Atl. 871.

Rhode Island. . Mechanics' Savings Bank v. Goff, 13 R. I. 516, 43 Am. Rep. 42.

Tennessee. O'Conner v. O'Conner, 88 Tenn. 76, 7 L. R. A. 33, 12 S. W. 447.

Texas. Beitel v. Dobbin (Tex. Civ. App.). 44 S. W. 299.

Utah. Thompson v. Cheesmans 15 Utah 43, 48 Pac. 477.