Ground vermilion may be used for this, but being so glaring it is not beautiful unless covered over with rose-pink or lake, which have a good effect when thus used. For a very bright crimson ground, safflower or Indian lake should be used, always dissolving in the alcohol of which the varnish is made. In place of this lake, carmine may be used, as it is more common. The top coat of varnish must always be of the white seed-lac, and as many coats given as will be thought proper; it is easy to judge of this.

Japan - Sheet Iron

The varnish for black japan consists of pure natural asphaltum with a proportion of gum anime dissolved in linseed oil and thinned with turpentine. In this layers this japan has a rich dark-brown color and only shows a brilliant black in thicker coatings. For fine work, which has to be smoothed and polished, several coats of black are applied in succession, each being separately dried in the stove at a heat which may rise to near 300 degrees Fahr. Body colors consist of a basis of transparent varnish mixed with special mineral paints of the desired color, or with bronze powders. The transparent varnish used by japanners is a copal varnish which contains less drying oil and more turpentine than is contained in the ordinary painters' oil varnish.

Japan - Transparent

Transparent japan may be made of oil of turpentine, 4 ounces; oil of lavender, 3 ounces; camphor, 1/2 drachm; copal, 1 ounce; dissolve. Used to japan tin, but quick copal varnish is mostly used instead.


To make yellow japan grounds, dissolve tumeric in spirits of wine, and strain through a cloth, and then mix with pure seed-lac varnish. Saffron will answer for the same purpose in the same way, but the brightest yellow ground is made by a primary coat of pure chrome yellow, and coated successively with the varnish. Dutch pink is used for a kind of cheap yellow japan ground. If a little dragon's blood be added to the varnish for yellow japan, a most beautiful and rich salmon-colored varnish is the result, and by these two mixtures all the shades of flesh-colored japans are produced.


Karakane, also called Japanese Bell Metal, is cast in various qualities, among them being the following: 1. Copper (10 parts), tin (2 parts), lead (2 parts). 2. Copper (10 parts), tin (3 parts), lead (2 parts), iron (1/2 part), zinc (1 part). 3. Copper (10 parts), tin (4 parts), iron (1/2 part), zinc (1 1/2 parts). 4. Copper (10 parts), tin (2 1/2 parts), lead (1 1-3 parts), zinc (1/2 part).

Karmasch's Britannia Metal

Karmarsch's Britannia Metal is composed of:

1 6-10 parts Bismuth, 1 4-10 parts Zinc, 3 6-10 parts Copper, 5 parts Antimony,

85 parts Tin.

Keeping Machines From Rusting

To keep machines from rusting: After cleaning well, grease with melted fat in which some camphor has been dissolved, and add to it a sufficient quantity of graphite. After four hours rub with a fine rag.

Keeping Polished Edges From Rusting

To keep polished edges from rusting, and still not detract from the appearance of the polished edge, put on a thin film of paraffine.