On leaving Chat Moss, the road passes over the lowlands at Barton, extending about a mile between the moss and Worsley canal by means of an embankment; it is carried over the canal by a neat stone viaduct of two arches. It then proceeds through Eccles, and a portion of Salford, under six bridges; it is carried over the Irwell by a handsome stone bridge of sixty-three feet span, thirty feet from the water; and then over twenty-two brick arches, and a bridge over Water-street to the company's station in Water-street, Manchester, a distance of thirty-one miles from the Liverpool station. The railway is there on a level with the second story of the Company's warehouses.

The following general abstract of the expenditure upon the work, up to 31st May, 1830, showing the cost of the different branches of the undertaking, may be found useful for comparison with the cost of more recent works of the kind: -

Advertising account.....

332

1

4

Brick-making account.....

9,724

4

4

Bridge account.......

99,065

11

9

Charge for direction.....

1,911

0

0

Charge for fencing......

10,202

16

5

Cart establishment......

461

6

3

Chat Moss account *.....

27,719

11

10

Cuttings and embankments †......................

199,763

8

0

Carrying department, comprising account expended inland and buildings for stations and dep&ts, warehouses, offices, etc, at the Liverpool end ............

35,538

0

0

Expended at the Manchester station ...........

6,159

0

0

Side tunnel .................................................

2,485

0

0

Gas-light account, including cost of pipes, gasometer, etc. ................................

1,046

0

0

Engines, coaches, machines, etc. .

10,991

11

4

56,219

11

4

Carry forward ...........................

405,399

11

3

* The embankments included under this head consist of about 277,000 cubic yards of raw moss earth, in the formation of which, about 677,000 cubic yards of raw moss have been used; the difference in measurement being occasioned by the squeezing out of the superabundant water, and consequent consolidation of the moss. The expenditure on this part of the line has been less than the average expenditure.

† Under this head is comprised the earth work on the whole line, exclusive of the Chat Moss district. The cuttings somewhat exceed the embankings; the surplus is principally deposited along the border of the Great Kenyon Cutting. The excavations consist of about 722,000 cubic yards of rock and shole, and about 2,006,000 cubic yards of marl, earth, and sand. This aggregate mass has been removed to various distances, from a few furlongs to between three and four miles: and no inconsiderable portion of it has been hoisted up by machinery, from a depth of thirty to sixty feet, to be deposited on the surface above, either to remain in permanent spoil banks, or to be afterwards carried to the next embankment.

Broought forward ........................

405,399

11

3

Formation of the road .................................

20,568

15

5

Rail account ................................................

67,912

0

0

This expenditure comprises the following items:-

Rails for a double way from Liverpool to Manchester, with occasional lines of communication, and additional side-lines at the different depots, being about 35 miles of double way = 3,847 tons, at prices averaging something less than 12l. 10s.

perton .....................................................

48,000

0

0

Cast-iron chairs, 1,428 tons, at an average of 10l. 10s......

15,000

0

0

Spikes and keys to fasten the chairs to the blocks, and the rails to the chairs .......................................................

3,830

0

0

Oak plugs for the blocks .............................

615

0

0

Sundry freights, cartages, etc. .....................

467

0

0

Interest account (balance) ...........................

3,629

16

7

Land account ..............................................

95,305

8

8

Office establishment ..................................

4,929

8

7

Parliamentary and law expenditure .............

28,465

6

11

Stone blocks and sleepers † ........................

20,520

14

5

Surveying account .......................................

19,829

8

7

Travelling account .......................................

1,423

1

5

Tunnel account ............................................

34,791

4

9

Tunnel compensation account ...................

9,997

5

7

Waggons used in the progress of the work ..................

24,185

5

7

Sundry payments for timber, iron, petty disbursements, etc. .......

2,227

17

3

Total ..................

739,185

5

0

About 100,000l. more were required to complete the work.

In the formation of the railway, there have been dug out of the different excavations upwards of three millions of cubic yards of stone, clay, and soil; which is equal to, at least, four millions of tons !

After mature consideration of the reports and calculations of various engineers, appointed to consider the most eligible description of power for the Manchester and Liverpool railroad, they determined in favour of locomotive engines, provided they could be made sufficiently powerful, and at the same time not of so great a weight as to injure the stability of the rails, and without emitting smoke, which is one of the provisions of the Railway Act. With the view also to obtain, if possible, an engine of improved construction, a public reward was offered by the directors in April 1829, for the best locomotive engine, subject to certain stipulations and conditions, which may be thus briefly stated: viz. to consume its own smoke: to be capable of drawing three times its own weight, at ten miles an hour, and with a pressure not exceeding 501bs. upon the square inch on the boiler: two safety valves, one locked up: engine and boiler to be supported on springs, and rest on six wheels if it should exceed 4 1/2 tons: height to top of chimney not more than 15 feet: weight, including water in boiler, not to exceed 6 tons; but preferred if of less weight: boiler, etc. proved to bear three times its working pressure: pressure gauge provided: cost of machine to be not more than 550/.

* By this is understood what is termed ballasting the road, - that is, depositing a layer of broken rock and sand, about two feet thick; viz. one foot below the blocks, and one foot distributed between them, serving to keep them firm in their places. Spiking down the iron chairs to the blocks or sleepers, fastening the rails to the chairs with iron keys, and adjusting the railway to the exact width, and curve, and level, come under this head of expenditure.

† Out of thirty-one miles, eighteen are laid with stone blocks, and thirteen with wooden sleeper of larch; the latter being laid principally across the embankment and across the two districts of moss.

On the day appointed, the following engines were entered for trial for the prize; and the judges appointed to decide were, Mr. Nicholas Wood, of Killingworth, (to whose labours we stand much indebted in this article,) Mr. Rastrick, of Stourbridge, and Mr. Kennedy, of Manchester, who made judicious arrangements.

The Rocket

Steam locomotive,

by

Mr. Robert Stevenson.

The Novelty

ditto

by

Messrs. Braithwaite & Erricson.

The Sans Pareil

ditto

by

Mr. Timothy Hackworth.

The Perseverance

ditto

by

Mr. Burstall of Edinburgh.

The Cyclopede

Horse locomotive,

by

Mr. Brandreth of Liverpool.

The trial, as before mentioned, took place on the level at Rainhill. Several days were employed in getting them into the best working condition for the contest.

Ton.

cwt.

qr.

lb.

The Rocket weighed ....................

4

5

0

0

Tender, with water and coke........

3

4

0

2

Two loaded carriages attached...

9

10

3

26

Total weight in motion ..........

17

0

0

0

The rate of performance of this engine was found by the judges to be 70 miles in about five hours, or 14 miles per hour; with an evaporation of 114 gallons per hour, and a consumption of coke of 2171bs. per hour. The greatest velocity attained was on the last eastward trip, the 1 1/2 mile being accomplished in 3'44', which is at the rate of 24 1/6 miles per hour.

On the following day the next engine brought up to the starting post was the Sans Pareil, but on weighing, it was found to exceed the condition of 4 1/2 tons upon four wheels, therefore could not strictly compete for the prize. Nevertheless, it underwent a trial of its powers, in order that the Directors might be acquainted with its merits.

Ton.

cwt.

qr.

lb.

The weight of the Sans Pareil .............

4

15

2

0

Tender with water and fuel .................

3

6

3

0

Three loaded carriages attached...........

10

19

3

0

Total weight in motion ....................

19

2

0

0

In making the,eighth trip on the running ground, the pump that supplied the water to the boiler became disordered in its action, by which the level of the water in the boiler became reduced below the fire tube, and the leader plug, employed as a safety valve, was melted, and put an end to the experiment. But as far as the experiment was conducted, which extended to 27 1/2 miles, the performance was creditable, being 19 1/2 tons conveyed at the rate of 15 miles per hour. The greatest velocity attained was in the fifth trip; the 1 1/2 mile-being traversed in 3' 59", which is at the rate of 22 2/3 miles per hour. The consumption of the coke in this engine was enormous, being at the rate of 6921bs. per hour, which was found to be owing to the draft through the fire-place being so powerful, as to blow red-hot cinders out of the chimney shaft.