This section is from the book "Spons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs", by Edward Spon. Also available from Amazon: Spons' Mechanics' Own Book.
Fig. 1052. Barker, or reaction mill. Rotary motion of central hollow shaft is obtained by the reaction of the water escaping at the ends of its arms, the rotation being in a direction the reverse of the escape.
Fig. 1053 represents a trough divided transversely into equal parts, and supported on an axis by a frame beneath. The fall of water filling one side of the division, the trough is vibrated on its axis, and at the tame time that it delivers the water the opposite side is brought under the stream and filled, which in like manner produces the vibration of the trough back again. This has been used as a water meter.
Fig. 1054. Persian wheel, used in Eastern countries for irrigation. It has a hollow shaft and curved floats, at the extremities of which are suspended buckets or tubs. The wheel is partly immersed in a stream acting on the convex surface of its floats; and as it is thus caused to revolve, a quantity of water will be elevated by each float at each revolution, and conducted to the hollow shaft at the same time that one of the buckets carries its fill of water to a higher level, where it is emptied by coming in contact with a stationary pin placed in a convenient position for tilting it.
Fig. 1055. Machine of ancient origin, still employed on the river Eisach, in the Tyrol, for raising water. A current keeping the wheel in motion, the pots on its periphery are successively immersed, filled, and emptied into a trough above the stream.
Fig. 105G. Application of Archimedes' screw to raising water, the supply stream being the motive power. The oblique shaft of the wheel has extending through it a spiral passage, the lower end of which is immersed in water, and the stream, acting upon the wheel at its lower end, produces its revolution, by which the water is conveyed upward continuously through the spiral passage and discharged at the top.
Fig. 1057. Montgolfier's hydraulic ram. Small fall of water made to throw a jet to a great height or furnish a supply at high level. The right-hand valve being kept open by a weight or spring, the current flowing through the pipe in the direction of the arrow escapes thereby till its pressure, overcoming the resistance of weight or spring, closes it. On the closing of this valve the momentum of the current overcomes the pressure on the other valve, opens it, and throws a quantity of water into the globular air-chamber by the expansive force of the air in which the upward stream from the nozzle is maintained. On equilibrium taking place, the right-hand valve opens and left-hand one shuts. Thus, by the alternate action of the valves, a quantity of water is raised into the air-chamber at every stroke, and the elasticity of the air gives uniformity to the efflux.
Figs. 1058, 1059. D'Ectol's oscillating column, for elevating a portion of a given fall of water above the level of the reservoir or head, by means of a machine, all the parts of which are absolutely fixed. It consists of an upper and smaller tube, which is constantly supplied with water, and a lower and larger tube, provided with a circular plate below concentric with the orifice which receives the stream from the tube above. Upon allowing the water to descend, as shown in Fig. 1058, it forms itself gradually into a cone on the circular plate, as shown in Fig. 1059, which cone protrudes into the smaller tube so as to check the flow of water downward; and the regular supply continuing from above, the column in the upper tube rises until the cone on the circular plate gives way. This action is renewed periodically, and is regulated by the supply of water.
Fig. 10G0. This method of passing a boat from one shore of a river to the other is common on the Rhine and elsewhere, and is effected by the action of the stream on the rudder, which carries the boat across the stream in the are of a circle, the centre of which is the anchor which holds the boat from floating down the stream.
Fig. 1061. Common lift-pump. In the up-stroke of piston or bucket the lower valve opens and the valve in piston shuts; air is exhausted out of suction-pipe, and water rushes up to fill the vacuum. In down-stroke lower valve is shut and valve in piston opens, and the water simply passes through the piston. The water above piston is lifted up, and runs over out of spout at each up-stroke. This pump cannot raise water over 30 ft. high.
Fig. 1062. Ordinary force-pump, with 2 valves. The cylinder is above water, and is fitted with solid piston; one valve closes outlet-pipe, and other closes suction-pipe. When piston is rising suction-valve is open, and water rushes into cylinder, outlet-valve being closed. On descent of piston suction-valve closes, and water is forced up through outlet-valve to any distance or elevation.
Fig. 1063. Modern lifting pump. This pump operates in same manner as one in previous figure, except that piston-rod passes through stuffing box, and outlet is closed by a flap-valve opening upward. Water can be lifted to any height above this pump.
Fig. 1064. Force-pump, same as 1062, with addition of air-chamber to the outlet, to produce a constant flow. The outlet from air-chamber is shown at 2 places, from either of which water may be taken. The air is compressed by the water during the downward stroke of the piston, and expands and presses out the water from the chamber during the up-stroke.
Fig. 1065. Double-acting pump. Cylinder closed at each end, and piston-rod passes through stuffing box on one end, and the cylinder has 4 openings covered by valves, 2 for admitting water and like number for discharge. A is suction-pipe, and B discharge-pipe. When piston moves down, water rushes in at suction-valve 1, on upper end of cylinder, and that below piston is forced through valve 3 and discharge-pipe B; on the piston ascending again, water is forced through discharge-valve 4, on upper end of cylinder, and water enters lower suction-valve 2.