(I) Fast. For 110 lb. cotton yarn or cotton wool. - 8 3/4 lb. solid extract of logwood, 5 lb. 10 oz. catechu. Boil up together, boil the yarn in the decoction for 1 hour, steep in the cold liquid for 24 hours; raise to a boil again; lift and air over night. Dissolve in sufficient fresh water 24 1/8 oz. chromate of potash, and 24 1/3 oz. blue vitriol, and work the cotton in this for 1/2 hour. Lift, drain, and dissolve 2f lb. soda ash in the cold logwood liquor. Heat to 139° F. (87° C), re-enter the cotton, work 15 minutes, and rinse. This colour bears washing and milling, and does not smear whites.
(2) Aniline, for 100 lb. Mix 6 lb. 9 oz. aniline oil with 8 lb. 12 oz. hydrochloric (muriatic) acid at 32° Tw. Let cool and add solution of 4 lb. 6 oz. chlorate of potash in 66 pints water, and finally add 43f pints of a solution of chloride of iron at 32° Tw. -Steep the bleached yarn for 8 to 10 hours in the liquid, which must previously be diluted with water at about 100° F; (38° C.); take out and place it in a solution of soda at 23° Tw., to neutralize the excess of acid. Wash, and steep for 1/2 hour in a beck made up with 66 pints water and 7 oz. chromate of potash at about 112° F. (45° C). This treatment prevents the dye from subsequently turning green. Wash, and pass the yarn though a mixture of 17 1/4 oz. emulsive oil (such as is used by Turkey red dyers), 2lb. 3 oz. potash, and 66 pints water. Dry at once.
(3) Aniline, for cotton yarns (De Vinant's). The cotton yarn, well boiled out, receives 7 turns in a beck, made up with 7 oz. sulphate copper for every 2 lb. 3 oz. yarn, dissolved in water slightly soured with muriatic acid; it is then well wrung out. It next receives 5 turns in water at 122° F. (50° C.) containing 1 3/4 oz. sulphide of sodium per 35 fl. oz. liquid, and is again rinsed. It then has 7 turns in a beck of 17 1/2 pints water, 6 1/4 oz. chlorate of potash, and 5 7/8 oz. sal-ammoniac, all dissolved by the aid of heat, and mixed with 16 1/2 oz. muriate of aniline. It is then stretched out very regularly in a drving-room, and kept for 48 hours at 76° F. (25° C). Lastly, it receives 4 turns in water containing 15 1/4 gr. bichromate of potash per 1 3/4 pint at 86° F. (30° C), and is then well washed, and dried. If the black has a foxy tone, take through 87 qt. cold water, to which has been added 35 fl. oz. bleaching-liquor at 8° Tw. Without great care, the blacks produced by this process are cloudy.
(4) Auiline With Vanadium (Pinck-Ney's)
Take 150 oz. muriate of aniline, 1/8 oz. salt of vanadium, 20 oz. chloride of nickel, 100 oz. chlorate of potash, 2500 oz. water. The yarns are steeped in a mixture of these substances, and dyed either hot or cold. In subsequent practice, the chloride of nickel has been found unnecessary, and the salt of vanadium admits of a great reduction in quantity.
Scour well, and for each 1 lb. cotton yarn, take 3 1/5 oz. sulphate of copper, dissolved in water made very feebly acid with spirits of salt (muriatic acid). Give 7 turns and wring well. Dissolve 1/2 lb. hydrosulphide of soda per gal. of water at 120° F. (49° C), give 5 turns, and wash well. Dye cold in 3 oz. chlorate of potash, 3 oz. sal-ammoniac, 1/2 lb. muriate of aniline dissolved in sufficient water. Give 7 turns quickly, wring well, and beat. Hang up evenly at 77° F. (25° C.) for 48 hours, and raise to 84° F. (29° C). Take through either bichromate, or weak soda-lye; wash well. If reddish when dry, take through very weak chloride of lime liquor.
(6) Fast, for 60 lb. yarn. - Take through indigo vat. Then boil 5 lb. logwood extract, and 1 1/2 lb. blue vitriol: steep yarns in this all night, and work in the morning, in 6 qt. nitrate of iron in sufficient cold water. Take through clear lime water, and wring out. Boil 5 lb. logwood extract, 1/4 lb. fustic extract. Add this to sufficient hot water; work yarn in this for 1/2 hour; lift; add 2 lb. copperas; work again, wash off, and dry.