(1) Magenta 1/4 oz. magenta crystals, 6 1/2 oz. acetic actd, 3 oz. water. Dissolve at a boil. Meantime mix for thickening 17 1/2 fl. oz. red liquor at 21 3/4° Tw., 17 1/2 fl. oz. water, and 12 oz. dextrine. Boil, cool, and .mix with 4 1/2 oz. thick gum water.

(2)1/2 to 3/4 oz. magenta crystals, 1/4 lb. alcohol, 10 oz. boiling water. Dissolve, and add 1/4 oz. oxalic acid. Thickening: - 17 1/2 oz. thick gum water, 18 oz. decoction of galls at 11 1/4° Tw., 9 oz. acetic acid. Mix, and add to the red; and stir in further 17 1/2 oz. thin gum water.

(3) 1 3/4 pint red liquor at 14° Tw., 2f oz. arsenite of soda, and 5/8 oz. magenta. Steam for 1 hour, soap, and wash in pure water. This process is applicable also to other aniline colours.

(4) Aniline Rose

35 oz. water, 6 oz. starch, 35 fl. oz. red liquor. Dissolve, and stir in 7 1/2 oz. roseine carmine (Baden Aniline Works).

(5) Saffranine For Calico

Mix 1/2 pint saffranine paste with 10 pints of the subjoined thickening: - 1 gal. acetate of alumina (red liquor) standard, 1 gal. water, and 2 lb. starch. Boil, cool, and add 1 pint arsenic and glycerine standard. The acetate of alumina standard is made with 1 gal. boiling water, and 2 1/2 lb. alum. Dissolve, and add 3 lb. white acetate of lead. Dissolve, let settle, and use the clear. The arsenic-glycerine standard is composed of 1 gal. white glycerine, 4 lb. arsenious acid; boil till dissolved, and filter. Print the colour on, and steam for } hour.

(6)Dissolve 1/4 oz. saffranine in 3 1/2 oz. hot water. Make prepared thickening: 2 lb. 3 oz. acetate of alumina at 2l 3/4° Tw., 17 1/2 oz. arsenite of soda at 98° Tw., 1 lb. 10 oz. acetic acid. Mix; dissolve separately 2 lb. 3 oz. soda, and the same weight of white arsenic in 2 5/8 pints of water. Mix all together, and 3 lb. 4 oz. gum water at 2 lb. 3 oz. per 1 3/4 pint. Take 5 lb. 7 1/2 oz. of the thickened, and 1 lb. 1 1/2 oz. solution of saffranine. Steam as in the former process. This colour is applicable for mixed goods.

(7) Eosine

Print with a thickened solution of eosine; steam, and pass into a bath of acetate of lead.

(8) Animalize with albumen, and dye in solution of eosine.

(9) Thicken a solution of eosine with white starch, or gum tragacanth; add arsenite of alumina (i.e. mixture of arsenite of soda and red liquor as given under saffranine). Print upon cloth prepared with tin; steam, and wash.

(10) Mix a solution of eosine with acetate of lead, acetate of tin, or red liquor thickened. Print upon calico, prepared with tin or oiled; steam and wash. Upon oiled calico the shades are bluish.

(11) Prepare the calico with solution of glue; print on a mixture of eosine with 3 times its weight of tannin; steam, and wash.

(12) Grain Ponceau

Boil 17 1/2 oz. cochineal in 10} pints water. Boil out the residue again in water; mix the. decoctions, and evaporate down to 10 1/2 pints; let cool, and settle. In the clear liquid, dissolve 6} oz. oxalic acid, 3 1/2 oz. white starch, and 4 3/8 oz. white glue. Print, steam at 190° F. (88° C), and rinse (13) Grain Red for Mixed Silk and Cotton Goods. - Mix 1 oz. extract of cochineal at 6.8° Tw. (for heavy shades this may be doubled), with the same quantity of berry liquor at the same strength. Thicken with 17 1/2oz. gum tragacanth; boil, stir till cold; dissolve in the liquid, 8 5/8 oz. oxalic acid, and 3 1/8 oz. tin crystals. Make up to 17 1/2 pints. Print, dry, hang up for 24 hours, steam for 1 hour at 212° F. (100° C), and rinse.

(14) Alizarine Red For Grounds

1 3/5 lb. alizarine paste, 15 per cent, (if 10 per cent. 2 lb.); 1 qt. acetic acid at 8.2° Tw., 2 qt. water, 2/5 lb. olive oil, 3/5 lb. acetate of lime at 14° Tw., 1 lb. wheat starch. Boil the whole, stir well till cold, and add 3/5 lb. acetate of alumina.

(15) Ditto For Mille Fleurs

5 1/5 lb. alizarine paste, 15 per cent.; 10 qt. thickening for reds, 3/5 b. nitrate of alumina at 21 3/4° Tw., 1 1/5 lb. acetate of alumina at 17° Tw., 4/5 lb. acetate of lime at 23 1/2° Tw.

(16) Ditto For Very Deep Reds

6 3/4 lb. alizarine paste, 15 per cent.; 10 qt. thickening for reds, 4/5 lb. nitrate of alumina at 21 3/4° Tw., l 1/5 lb. acetate of alumina at 17°Tvv., 1 lb. acetate of lime at 23 1/2° Tw.

(17) Red without Olive Oil - 5 3/5 lb. alizarine paste, 15 per cent.; 9 3/5 lb. acetic acid at 11.2° Tw., 3 3/5- lb. flour, 4/5 lb. water. Boil to a paste, stir till cold, and then add 5 1/2 oz. acetate of lime at 23 1/2° Tw., 2 lb. nitrate of alumina at 21 3/4° Tw., 3 lb. hyposulphite of lime at 12.6° Tw.

(18) Red And Pink

31- lb. alizarine paste, 15 per cent.; 8 qt. thickening for red, 1 lb. acetate of alumina, 17° Tw.; 1/2 lb. acetate of lime, 23 1/2° Tw. For pink, add 2 to 3 times its weight of thickening for red.

If a dark-red design is to be covered by a lighter red, the dark red is first steamed for 1 hour. After printing the second colour, it is again steamed for 1 hour, and hung up for 24 hours. The pieces are then taken through either of the two following baths: - (a) 250 gal. water, 60 lb. chalk, 3 lb. tin crystals. (6) 250 gal. water, 40 lb. chalk, 10 lb. arseniate of soda. The baths are heated to 122° to 143° F. (50° to 62° C), and the passage lasts for 1 to 1 1/2 minute. Wash and rinse in the following soap becks, each warmer than the former, and prepared as follows (for 10 pieces of about 50 yd. each): - First beck: 3 lb. soap, 1/4 lb. tin crystals; heat 122° F. (50° C.); time,1/2 hour. Second beck: 3 lb. soap; heat, 167° F. (75° C.); time, 1/2 hour. Third beck: 3 lb. soap; heat, 167° to 177° F. (75° to 80° C); time, 1/4 hour. After each soap bath, the pieces are well washed.

The thickenings and mordants here mentioned, are prepared as follows: - Thickenings for reds, No. 1. - 12 lb. wheat starch, 7 gal. water, 1 gal. acetic acid, 8.2° Tw., 2 1/4 gal. tragacanth solution (2 oz. per qt.), 3 lb. olive oil, which must be thoroughly incorporated with the mass. Stir till perfectly cold. No. 2. - 12 lb. wheat starch, 4 1/2 gal. water, 4 1/4 gal. acetic acid, 8.2° Tw., 3 lb. olive oil.

Nitrate Of Alumina Mordant

20 lb. nitrate of lead, 20 lb. alum., 5 gal. boiling water. Let the sulphate of lead settle, and draw off the clear. If the nitrate of alumina is used instead of the acetate, it causes the red to turn more to a scarlet; but it requires the use of a little more acetate of lime than acetate of alumina.

Acetate Of Alumina Mordants

Dissolve first 68 lb. alum in 100 gal. water, and precipitate by adding a solution of 62 lb. soda crystals in 150 gal. water. This precipitate, which is a basic sulphate of alumina, is washed 3 times by decantation. It is then thrown on a filter, let drain, and pressed. Of the paste thus obtained, 30 lb. are placed in 6 qt. acetic acid at 11.2° Tw., and heated to 90° F. (32° C), till complete solution has taken place. It is then filtered, and diluted with water to the strength required. As a general rule, 100 parts alizarine paste at 15 per cent, require 30 acetate alumina at 17° Tw.

Acetate Of Lime Mordant

The solution of acetate of lime at 32 1/2° Tw. contains about 25 per cent, of the salt. For a neutral well-washed paste, at 15 per cent., about 15 per cent, of its weight of acetate of lime is used.

Alizarine reds produced by printing are never quite so beautiful as the corresponding shades obtained by dyeing upon mordants according to the madder style.

Violets: (1) Galleine

35 qt. galleine paste, 17 1/2 qt. gum water, 1 3/4 qt. acetate of chrome at 26 3/4 ° Tw. Print and steam.

(2) Hofmann's

Mix the dissolved and filtered colour with red liquor, and with a solution of arsenious acid in glycerine. Thicken- with gum and starch. Steam for 1 hour, and soap gently.

(3) Aniline

1/2 oz. llofmann's or Perkin's violet, 13 1/2 oz. hot alcohol. (There are now violets perfectly soluble in water). Dissolve, filter, and add immediately 1 1/2oz. tannin, 1/4 oz. oxalic acid. Let cool, and meantime mix 2 1/2 lb. thick gum water, 18 oz. water, 18 oz. acetic acid. Stir up well, and add to the above solution of colour. Print and steam.

(4) 17 1/2 oz. pure tannin are dissolved in 15f pints gum water, and an amount of aniline violet is added according to the required shade. Priut, steam, enter the pieces at 135° to 180° F. (57° to 82° C.) into a bath of tartar emetic, containing 1/2 oz. of this salt per 1 3/4 pint; wash and dry. Or the pattern may be printed on with a thickened solution of tannin, ranging from 3/4 oz. per 1 3/4 pint for pale, to 4 1/2 oz. for full shades, steamed, and passed into a bath of tartar emetic. They are then well washed and dyed in the bath of aniline violet, raising the temperature gradually to a boll, which is kept up for 20 minutes. Wash, and soap slightly. This process is applicable to various other aniline colours.


4 gal. berry liquor at 12° Tw., 1 1/2 lb. alum.

China Grass

In regard to dyeing, it somewhat resembles Tussah silk, being difficult to colour by the ordinary methods; it is therefore necessary to employ energetic methods, of which the principal consists in a preliminary mordanting of the fibre. For every 10 lb. of grass, use 100 pints water and 1 lb. soda crystals or caustic potash; heat to 176° to 194° F. (80° to 90° C), work for 20 or 25 minutes, and wash thoroughly. Make a bath of 100 pints water, 1 lb. sulphuric acid; heat to 158° to 176° F. (70° to 80° C.),work for 20 to 25 minutes, and wash immediately. The fibre is then ready to receive ordinary dyes. (Mon. Teint.).

Cotton Dyeing

Cotton, like all vegetable fibres, is easily injured by acids, consequently, neither mordants nor colours of a strongly acid character can be employed; otherwise the goods will be corroded, and the colours will fail to be duly absorbed. The solutions employed must be very feebly acid, neutral, or even alkaline. Another important feature is the temperature at which cotton is dyed. In the majority of cases it is worked in the cold, or at a "hand-heat," i.e. at about 90° to 100° F. (32° to 38°C). It is most extensively dyed in the state of yarn, but a large quantity also after being woven. This especially relates to the mixed fabrics, known as Bradford goods, the warps of which are cotton, and the weft worsted. The perfection of cotton dyeing is to produce on these warps the same tone and depth of colour as are found on the worsted, so that the entire piece may appear level, and free from any cheeky character.

It will now be convenient to give a series of approved recipes for producing the principal colours upon cotton, selecting such as best illustrate the resources of the modern dyer, and having especial regard to aniline and its allied tinctorial substances.