Padding Purple

Make up a thickener as follows: - 13 1/2 gal. water, 2 gal. purple fixing liquor, 2 qt. logwood liquor at 8° Tw., 18 lb. flour. Boil, and add 2 1/2 gal. of farina gum water, made by boiling 6 lb. dark calcined farina in 1 gal. water.

Purple Fixing Liquor

(1) 7 1/2 gal. water, 1 1/2 gal. acetic acid, 9 lb. sal ammoniac, 9 lb. arsenious acid. Boil till all the arsenic is dissolved; let stand to settle, and decant off the clear for use.

(2) 2 gal. water, 25 lb. soda crystals, 22 1/2 lb. white arsenic. Boil till dissolved, and add 50 gal. raw acetic acid, which should first be heated to 120° F. (49° C.) Let settle for some days; decant off the clear and add 3 qt. muriatic acid at 32° Tw.

Purple Assistant Liquor

100 lb. potato starch, 37 1/2 gal. water, 123 gal. nitric acid at 60° Tw., 4 oz. black oxide manganese. When the reaction is over, and the nitric acid is destroyed, add 50 gal. pyroligneous acid.

Red, Dark (For Machine Work)

6 gal. red liquor at 18° Tw., 12 lb. flour.

Standard Red Liquor

20 lb: alum, 12 1/2 lb. sugar of lead, 5 gal. boiling water. Stir till dissolved; let settle, and draw off the clear.

Dark Red, For Resisting A Chocolate Cover

12 gal. resist-red liquor (see below) at 18° Tw., 24 lb. flour. Boil well, and when almost cold, add 12 lb. tin crystals.

The resist-red liquor consists of 90 gal. acetate of lime at 24° Tw., 272 lb. sulphate of alumina, 34 lb. ground chalk.

Red, For Resisting Purple Covers

6 gal. resist-red liquor at 14° Tw., 12 lb. flour; boil; when nearly cold, add 2 1/4 lb. tin crystals.

White figures are obtained by printing on some mixture like the following: - 1 gal. lime juice, at 8°, 20°, or 30° Tw., 1 lb. starch. Boil, and stir till dissolved. Where this so-called "acid " is printed in, covers and padded grounds subsequently printed take no effect, and the figure remains white. Upon such whites, steam colours may be afterwards blocked in, and thus a great variety of effect is obtained.

Manganese Bronze Style

A brown ground is produced over the entire surface by padding in solutions of a salt of manganese, drying, padding in soda lye, first at 24° Tw. then at 12° Tw., rinsing in water, taking through bleaching lime at 2° Tw., washing again in water, and drying. By these processes, manganese peroxide is uniformly deposited over the fibre. Various colours are then printed upon this ground, so made up as to discharge it, and become fixed in its place, the result being designs in white, black, red, green, blue, yellow, etc, on a brown ground. After printing, the pieces are hung up for a few hours, rinsed in a flow of water, in chalk water, then in pure water, and, in case of chrome yellow greens, in a solution of bichromate of potash at about 40° Tw. Lastly, the goods are washed and dried. As specimens of the discharge colours printed on, the following are given: -


1 gal. Brazil-wood liquor at 12° Tw., 2 oz. blue stone, 2 oz. sal ammoniac, 2 lb. starch. Boil, and add 8 fl. oz. ozymuriate of tin at 120° Tw. Mix 2 qt. of the above colour with 1 qt. double muriate of tin at 120° Tw.


2 gal. water, 8 lb. light British gum. Boil, and add 8 lb. tartaric acid, 1 gal. double muriate of tin at 120° Tw.

Padding Style

This is a modification of the madder style. The pieces are padded over with red and black liquor, dried in the so-called padding-flue; the pattern is printed on in lime-juice and bisulphate of potash, thickened generally with starch, thus removing the mordant from certain parts. After ageing, dunging, and dyeing, the design appears in white on a claret, scarlet, or purple ground. It is, of course, easy to convert the white design into a yellow, or to block in steam or pigment colours.

Pigment Style

The colours employed in this style are insoluble pigments, which are fixed upon the fibre by various mediums, and offer the advantages of solidity and permanence, combined with a lightness and brilliance equalling, in many cases, those of colours formed in the fibre. The pigments chiefly employed are ultramarine of various shades, from greenish-blue to a full blue, violet-blue, and even a reddish-violet; vermilion; several ochres; zinc-white; certain chrome colours, such as chrome-yellow, chrome-green, Guignet's green, Wilner's green, lamp-black, sienna, umber, etc. The vehicles or mediums for attaching these pigments to the fabric are albumen and caseine (often called lactarine). Blood-albumen may be used for all save the lightest and brightest colours. The pigments are ground up in albumen, thickened often with gum tragacanth, printed and steamed. The albumen is thus coagulated, and the colour is permanently attached to the fibre. Pigment printing is chiefly confined to such parts of designs as consist of small dots, stars, and flowers; more rarely to broad stripes, large foliage, etc. It affords the means of producing many pleasing effects which would not otherwise be practicable.

Pigment colours, and other colours fixed by means of albumen, may be discharged by printing in the juice of the papaw-tree (Carica Papaya), thickened with gum.

Aniline Black: (1) For Tarn Printing

1 3/4 pint gum tragacanth water, 2 5/8 pints water, 9 3/4 oz. sublimed aniline muriate, 2 3/4 oz. chlorate of potash. Immediately before use, work in 2f oz. sulphide of copper. The colour thus made is printed; the pieces are dried and aged for 48 hours at 86° F. (30° C.) in a moist atmosphere. As soon as the colour appears of a blackish-green, the yarns are washed, taken through weak bichromate of potash, then through a solution of soda, washed and dried.

(2) For Machine Work

159 oz. each chlorate of potash and sal ammoniac, 150 oz. moist sulphide of copper, 360 oz. white starch, 180 oz. calcined starch, 2300 oz. water. Boil, stir till cold, and add 317 oz. sublimed aniline salt, previously dissolved in 9000 oz. cold water.