Discharges On Vat-Blues

Give a medium blue in the vat. Steep pieces in bichromate of potash (4 3/8oz. in If pint water), and dry on rollers, avoiding sun-light. Print on the following discharges: -

White

7 pints water, 2 lb. 7 1/4 oz. white starch. Boil, and add while still warm, 2 lb. 3 oz. tartaric acid, and then 2l 1/2 oz. oxalic acid, dissolved in If pint water.

Red

14 qt. red liquor, 17 1/2 lb.white starch. Boil; let one half grow cold, and add to it 7 lb. 10 oz. oxalic acid. Then add the other half of the hot mixture to complete the solution of the acid.

The red liquor consists of 2 lb. 3 oz. alum, the same weight acetate of lead, 3 1/2 pints water.

Print on the white and red discharges with the perrotine, or with a two-colour cylinder machine. Do not dry too strongly. Age in hot, but not moist, air, which is an essential condition. The next morning, dung'as follows: - Into a beck with rollers, put 6 lb. 9 oz. neutral arseniate of potash, 27 lb. 7 oz. chalk, and 1750 pints water. Pass the pieces slowly through at a simmer, so as to keep the chalk in suspension. After leaving this beck, the pieces are strongly compressed between two rollers covered with cloth. After the first 5 pieces have passed, feed the beck with 1 3/4 oz. arseniate of potash, and a little chalk, per piece. After thus cleansing the pieces, dye up in alizarine, and take through boiling water.

Green And Yellow On A Deep-Blue Ground

Boil the pieces with 2 lb. 3 oz. soda-ash per 100 yd.; wash well, and take through a weak soda beck, containing per 100 yd., 8f oz. soda-ash at 100° F. (38° C). Dry, calender, and dye a blue in the cold vat. Take through sulphuric acid at 1.4° Tw., starch slightly, dry, and calender cold. Print the following colours on the blue ground: -

(1) Green Discharge

26 1/4 lb. pipeclay, 6 lb. 9 oz. gum arabic, the same weight of blue-stone, and of verdigris, 13 lb. 2 oz. nitrate of lead, and 6 lb. 9 oz. sugar of lead. The verdigris is dissolved in acetic acid, and the gum in water *, the two solutions are stirred together, and the pipe-clay, previously softened in water, is added. The other ingredients are powdered, and stirred in by degrees. Water is added, enough to make the mixture fit for printing; when it is boiled, the water lost by evaporation is replaced, and the colour is then ready.

(2) Yellow Discharge

19 lb. 11 oz. pipe-clay, 2f lb. verdigris,2 3/4b. 7 1/2 oz. blue-stone, 3 3/4 lb. nitrate of copper, the same weight of gum arabic, 15 1/2 pints water, 6 3/4 lb. nitrate of lead, the same weight of sugar of lead, and 4 lb. 6 oz. nitric acid at 143° Tw. Make up the colour without the nitric acid, stir all well together, and stir in the nitric acid just before using.

Print on first the green and then the yellow. Age in the cold, till the discharge becomes visible on the back of the pieces. Take them through a weak vat to wet them, and then dye up to shade in a fresh vat. Sour without drying, wash off the colours, rinse, take through weak lime-water to remove the acid, and then through a beck of chromate of potash, containing 3 1/4 lb. chromate per 87 qt. water. The pieces are caused to move very slowly, so that the dyeing process may go on satisfactorily. Rinse, dry, stiffen, and calender.

Madder Colours

This style on the Continent is generally characterized as "dyeing mordants," or " dyeing upon mordants," a preferable name, since the essence of the style is that merely mordants, duly thickened, are printed upon the pieces. The cloth is then worked in a dye-beck (formerly with madder, now with coal-tar alizarine and anthrapur-purine), as if the object were to produce a uniform colour. As, however, the mordants have been applied to certain parts of the surface only, the colour attaches itself to these alone, producing the design. The colours thus obtained are then cleared of brightened, and the white ground is freed from all traces of colour.

The subjoined are some of the more important of the mordants (called by the misleading name of "colours ") printed on for the production of special effects in the madder style: -

Black (For Machine Work)

4 gal. black liquor at 34° Tw., 4 gal. crude acetic acid, 4 gal. water, 24 lb. flour. Grind the flour to a smooth paste with a little of the mixed liquid, stir in the rest, boil, and stir in 1 pint of gallipoli No clots must be allowed to remain.

It must be noted that blacks are less frequently produced by the madder style than was formerly the case, as the aniline black is more and more taking their place.

Brown Standard

50 gal. water, 200 lb. catechu. Boil 6 hours, and add 4 1/2 gal. acetic acid. Make up to 50 gal. with water. Let stand for 2 days; decant the clear, heat to 130°; F. (54° C.), and add 96 lb. sal ammoniac, dissolve and let settle for 48 hours, decant the clear, and thicken with 4 lb. gum Senegal per gal.

For Machine Work

8 gal. brown standard, as above, 1 gal. acetate of copper, as below, 1/2 gal. acetic acid, 1/2 gal. gum Senegal water (4 lb. a gal.).

To make the acetate of copper, take 4 lb. blue-stone, 4 lb. sugar of lead, 1 gal. hot water. Dissolve; let settle, and set the clear at 16° Tw. with water.

Madder Brown To Resist Heavy Covers Of Purple

1/2 lb. catechu, 1/4 lb. sal ammoniac, 1 qt. lime juice at 8° Tw., 2 1/2 oz. nitrate of copper at 80° Tw., 1 1/2 oz. acetate of copper, 1 lb. gum Senegal.

Chocolate

3 gal. iron liquor at 24° Tw., 6 gal. red liquor at 18° Tw., 14 lb. flour, 1 pint logwood liquor.

Drab

4 gal. brown standard, 1 gal. proto-muriate of iron (ferrous chloride) at 9° Tw., 3 gal. acetate of copper, I gal. gum substitute water, containing 4 lb.

Purple

Add to the iron liquor, in proportions varying according to the shade, 40 lb. light British gum, 16 gal. water, 2 gal. purple fixing liquor. Boil well together; draw off, and allow the whole to stand for 3 to 4 days. Of this, 8 to 30 gal. may be added to 1 gal. black liquor.