A sail - presumably a lugsail - of best duck will cost about 1s. 4d. per sq. yd.; but if the builder desires to make it himself - a difficult and delicate task - good duck can be purchased for 9d. per yd. Duck is most suitable for all descriptions of small boats. In any case avoid cotton, as it does not hold the wind, is very frail, liable to rot, and soon turns an unchangeable dirty colour, disheartening alike to sailor and spectator. Boats similar to that given here are very commonly built "double-bowed "; that is, the bow and stern are shaped alike, the lines at the stern being a little fuller. Opinions differ as to their respective appearances; but if it is the builder's desire to have a boat that shall "laugh at all disaster, and with wave and whirlwind wrestle," he could not do better than build it in this manner, as besides possessing many minor advantages, a boat so shaped will run before the wind in a gale that her " square-sterned " consort could not be kept afloat 5 minutes in. (J. McCash). (b.) Take 10 or 11 cedar boards 3/4 in. thick, and not less than 7 in. wide; also, 2 cedar boards 1 in. thick, 14- in. wide, and 13 ft. long, free from knots. The latter will be called the sideboards. They should both be of same quality, so that one will bend as easily as the other.

Cedar is used throughout, except where the name of the wood is given.

Boat building.

Boat building.

A piece is cut, shaped like Fig. 352 A, with the entire length 4 ft., the width 12 in., and the distance d from the end to the dotted line 4 in. We will name this the cross-board. A piece of oak is cut of similar shape, but making the entire length 20 in., width 13 in., and distance d 6 in. This is the stern-piece.

Both ends of each side-board are sawed off bevel, like the ends of the cross-board, and with same slant at both ends. The bevel at one end of the side-board should be the reverse of that at the other, making one edge 12 fib. 8 in. long, and the other 12 ft. The sideboard has the appearance of Fig. A elongated. The tapering of the sideboards at the ends, necessary in the construction of a scow, is not required here. The necessary upward curve of the bottom is obtained by the bending of the side boards, as described hereafter.

Set the side-boards b, Fig. B, on edge parallel with the longer edges uppermost, and at about the middle place the cross-board t between, also with its longer edge uppermost. Kail the sideboards b lightly to the cross-board t. With the aid of ropes, draw two ends of the side-boards together; the other ends draw against the stern-piece r. In a piece of oak, about 16 in. long, cut grooves throughout its length, and make it cross section like Fig. C. This " stem-piece," as it is called, is placed between the ends of the side-boards that were drawn together. After altering the shape of the stem-piece, if necessary, so that the ends of the side-boards shall fit closely into the grooves, the sideboards are securely nailed to both stem-piece and stern-piece. The projecting upper end of the stem-piece is sawed off, and the boat is inverted carefully.

The convex edges of the side-boards are planed down 1 in. or more at the middle c Fig. D, so that the bottom (the boat is note bottom up) may be flat from a to 6, making easy curves at a and b. This flattening of the bottom is not useless, the draft being thereby diminished, and the speed probably increased.

Bottom boards 3/4 in. thick are nailed on crosswise (Fig. E), and the projecting ends are sawed off. A long bottom board is put in, and the cross-board, which was only temporary, is knocked ont.

Fig. F represents the seat at the bow. The cross-piece n is secured by nails driven through the side-boards into its ends, as at p. In Fig. G, which represents the seat at the stern, the cross-piece l is fastened in the same manner. There is a cleat at k. The seats in both bow and stern are about 3 in. below the edges of the side-boards, and the seat-boards are lengthwise.

We are now ready for the "upper streaks," as they are called. Two strips are cut 12 ft. 8 in. long, 2 in. wide, and 1 in. thick; two notches, each 1 1/2 in. long, and nearly 2 in. deep, are cut in the upper edge of each side-board, Fig. H. They are 3 in. apart, and the point midway between them is 5 ft. 1 in. from the stern, measuring on a straight line in the middle of the boat. All the longitudinal measurements hereafter given are upon this line.

The upper streaks are now nailed on the outside of the side-boards even with the upper edges of the latter. The joint made by the upper streaks at the bow is shown by Fig. J, in which a is the stem-piece, d the side-boards, and c are the upper streaks. The rowlocks are now completed by a short strip y, Fig. K, strongly screwed on the inside, over the notches. Make tholepins, and fit them into these mortises. It is often convenient to have another pair of rowlocks about 2 ft. nearer the bow, that when a person sits in the stern, the rower may shift forward to better distribute the weight, for a boat rows hard when the stern is weighted down.

Make two cleats for the rower's seat, with their aft ends 6 ft. from the stern, and their upper edges 7 1/2 in. below the edges of the side-boards. Saw off a seat-board 3 ft. 10 in. long.

Invert the boat and fit a piece of 1 in. board, n, Fig. L, upon its edge, at the stern, upon and perpendicular to the' bottom. It is fastened at g by a screw, between g and m by nails driven into it through the bottom from the inside of the boat, and by the strip m of the same thickness, nailed on the end of n, and crossing the stern-piece vertically, to which it is screwed.

A {-in. hole is bored through the stern-piece at /, Fig. M, through which the painter, 10 ft. long, is tied. An iron strap, shaped like the double line in the same figure, is screwed to the cutwater.

The proper length for oars is about 7 ft.

The boat is now caulked, unless already rendered water-tight by an equivalent method. Nail-heads are covered with putty, two coats of paint are applied, and the skiff is completed.