(a) The first thing to be done is to design the boat intended to be built, and draw a plan similar to that represented by Fig. 351 A. The designs must now be drawn upon a floor fall size, from which moulds similar to that shown by B are now made. The construction of these moulds does not require any particular care except that they must be made sufficiently strong to resist pressure during building, and must be extremely accurate along the outside.

Boat building.

Boat building.

This done, the building of the boat may now be commenced - if possible under a rainproof shed - by laying the keel and tenoning to it the stem a on Fig. C, and sternpost a on Fig. D. Should the keel not be thick enough for tenoning, it may be box-scarfed, by cutting away half of each. After this the keel must be fixed in the stocks, the stem and sternpost plumbed to see if they are true, and thereafter stayed by pieces of wood from the floor of the workshop. The keel should be cut, technically speaking, rabbeted, as shown in a, Fig. E, so as to allow the garbeard strake to fit in the stem, and sternpost should also be cut in a similar manner where shown by the lines b in Figs. C D. A stout piece of wood is now nailed from the top of the stem to the stern-poit, in order to keep them better together, and afford additional support to the moulds when inserted. The knee c in Fig. D, apron c in Fig. C, and transom b in Fig. D, are now inserted; the holes being bored with a fine auger, the nails being driven in from the inside, and securely clinched from the outside, as shown by Figs. CD. Oak, ash, or elm is generally used for the foregoing, and all bent timber must be grown. The moulds can now be placed in their position and firmly secured.

Thereafter, measure the half girth of the midship mould, and divide it into an equal number of sections, after allowing about 3/4 in. for the landings at each plank or strake. Having determined upon the number of strakes, mark off an equal number on the stem, rabbet line, sternpost, and transom - it will be seen that the strakes taper considerably foro and aft - and begin planking. To do this, a novice may require an apparatus for steaming the planks, that they may bend more easily. This, although it must be steamtight, need not be an elaborate affair. A wooden box of the desired length, and about 8in. square inside measurement, with a door at either end, will suffice. If the builder cannot secure steam from a boiler, he will require to place this box upon legs sufficiently high safely to allow a fire and pot underneath, from which he can make a wooden steam pipe to the box above. The garboard strake - the plank nearest the keel - is fitted on first, and so on upwards. Some of the strakes will be founito be curved or " sneyed " in a curious manner; but the correct curve of the strake to be fitted on can generally be got by clamping it to the preceding strake, and marking the curve with a pencil.

The strakes are nailed together in the following manner: - The strake to be fitted on is secured in its proper place by clamps or wooden screws, a hole is bored through both planks at the landings, a roving nail is then driven in from the outside through a roove in the inside, which is held in its place by a rooving iron - a kind of pincers which allows the nail to pass through. The end of the nail is then cut off all but a very small portion; a holder-on is then put to the back of the nail from the outside, and the inside portion of the nail still remaining is hammered back upon the roove, thus, in a manner, forming a rivet. At the stem, sternpost, and transom, of course, the nails are simply driven in. It may be necessary to bevel the edges of the bilge strake with a plane, in order to keep the correct curve. The planking almost invariably is of yellow pine, and some boat-builders recommend painting the landings with red lead, when the strakes are put together, alleging that it keeps them from rotting the better. After the planking is finished, the moulds are taken out of the interior, and the timbers are inserted, being clinched in a similar manner as the strakes. They are generally of elm, or other hard wood, and will require about 4 hours' steaming.

The floors b in Fig. 352 E are next inserted, but are not as yet clinched, as, after being steamed and nailed in their position for a day or so, they are removed to be joggled - cut to fit the planks - as shown in the diagram. If grown timber can be had, the floors can be joggled and put in at once. The floors extend from bilge to bilge, and are of hard wood. The gunwale is now fitted on. This can be done in several ways: by cutting down the timber heads a sufficient depth to allow the gunwale to rest on them and lie flush with the top strake by cutting away 1/2 in. or so off the top of the timber heads, and joggling the gunwale to admit of their insertion; or as is shown by a, Fig. F, by rabbeting the gunwale and fitting it on over the top strake, to which it is either clinched or nailed. If either of the two former plans were adopted, the top strake should be of elm. The gunwale is of boxwood. A stout knee is inserted and secured at the base, as shown by Fig. G. A knee is also inserted at the transom on both sides, as shown by Fig. II. A stringer ft, in Fig. F, is now put on on each side, running from bow to stern, and clinched through the timbers on which the scats in c Fig. F rest. The seats are also clinched to the knees d in Fig. F. These knees are also clinched to the top strake.

The bowand stern bolts, bow and stern gratings, and bottom boards are now made and put in. The bottom boards are nailed together before being put in, and then secured by a clasp, that they may be easily removed for cleaning the bottom of the boat. The rudder now alone remains to be made, and is hung on pintles, as shown in Fig. D. For the equipment of such a boat as this, the builder may calculate that oars will cost 6d. per lineal ft. The anchor should weigh lib. per ft. of boat in length, but if a sailing boat with ballast, 1 1/2 lb. per ft. In that case, a step will required to be made for the mast, which should be nailed to the keel. All the nails used in the construction of the boat must be of copper. Also an iron clasp to each. The mast must be fitted to the seat, the seat being cut to receive half of the girth of the mast. For the mast a good Norwegian pine - home-grown timber is useless - about 20 ft. can be got for about 5s. in its rough condition, and is dressed by an adze before being planed. Longitudinal cracks are of no consequence in a spar; but the slightest flaw transversely denotes that it is sprung - so useless. This never occurs but in masts which have been used, when care also must be taken that there are no signs of rottenness anywhere, especially at the hounds.