Smiths' tools.

Smiths' tools.

There is also the tuyere or tue iron to be considered, its function being the conveying of the blast to the fire. The nose of a tuyere would rapidly burn away, and does inevitably burn in time; but its destruction is retarded by the formation of a water chamber behind and around it, a current of cold water being made to circulate by convection within a conical cylinder through which the blast pipe passes, the whole being attached to a cistern or " water bosh." Fig. 218 shows this, the more modern type, in section, and Fig. 219 a section of the older tue iron, made either in cast or in wrought iron. These are illustrative, however, of the tuyeres used for large forges; but the small forges here figured are not provided with a water tuyere, because they are not subject to so fierce a heat as those of larger dimensions, and they are used intermittently. The nozzle which receives the blast pipe is, therefore, simply thickened up in these cases, and the boss piece is cast in one with a back plate, and thus bolted to the hearth back, so as to be readily renewable, as in Figs. 213, 214.

The firing tools are the poker (Fig. 220), the slice (Fig. 221), and the rake (Fig. 222). A ladle is also used for lifting water from the slake trough for the damping down of the fire.

The anvil (Fig. 223), of wrought iron, steel faced, is often supported at its proper height - about 2 ft. - on a block of wood, having spikes driven in at the corners to keep the anvil in place. A much neater and better way is to have a hollow standard of cast iron (Fig. 224) furnished with ledges for the anvil, and with holes at the side3 for clearing out the scale and dust. Such a casting is easily made from a pattern by coring out, gives less recoil than wood, and looks neat. Anvils weigh from a few lb. to 4-5 cwt., one of 2 cwt. being of suitable size for light work. The conical end is called the "beak," or "bick," the steel top the " face," the body the " core." There is a square hole, or sometimes two square holes, in the face to receive the anvil cutter and the various bottom tools.

Of the large number of tools of different shapes employed by smiths, those which are in most constant request are the hammers and tongs. After these come the different sets, swages, fullers, and flatters. A smith who works alone is vastly more limited in the number of tools which he can employ than one who has a striker to assist him. When a man is holding his work with the one hand and the hammer with the other, he cannot be holding top swages and flatters and sets as well. But when a two-handed job is required, help can usually be obtained.

Of hammers there are two principal types, each varying in weight and shape, the hand hammer (Fig. 225) and the sledge (Figs. 226, 227). The former weighs 1-4 lb., the latter about 4-14 lb. A hand hammer of 2-3 lb. weight is useful for general work, the lightest hammer, about 1 1/2 lb., being chiefly used by the smith to indicate to his striker at which points to direct his blows, the heavier hammers for drawing down and forging light works. The lighter sledges are used " up-handed," that is, for lifting and striking in a circular arc simply, over the work. The heavier sledges are swung in a complete circle, or " about sledge." The handles of each of these hammers are made of ash, well spoke-shaved, and smoothed with glass paper, and are wedged with- a single wood wedge, as shown in Fig. 228, wedges of wood being less likely to work loose than those of iron.

Taking the various tongs in order (Fig. 229), we have A and B the flat hit tongs, having flat parallel jaws, the width of opening of the jaws being greater in the " open mouth " A than in the "close mouth " B - the former being used for thick, the latter for thin work, but each being similarly used for the purpose of grasping flat iron bars and sheets. The pincer tongs C are made in two forms, the first being simply concave in the jaws, the second veed as shown, the function of each being the grasping of round, square, or hexagonal bars. The hollow space behind the jaws allows of collars and similar expansions on forged work being enclosed thereby. D are tongs of similar type, but more widely useful, because longer and more enlarged behind the jaws. The "crook bit tongs " E are very common, and are made in various sizes, their peculiar shape permitting of a bar of iron passing down by the handles, while the lip on one jaw serves to retain the bar in place. The " hammer tongs " F grasp punched work, entering into the punched holes. The "hoop tongs " G are for holding rings of thin metal. H are " bolt tongs " for grasping bolts or rings of round bar iron.

I J are two forms of "pliers." the latter being in constant use for general light work, picking up light rods, punches, drifts, hardening and tempering tools, etc. K are " hollow bit tongs," made in many sizes for holding rods of circular or other sections. While L and M are " flat tongs," two of the commoner modifications of the last type, and also made in several sizes for grasping flat bars of different widths and thicknesses. These embrace the principal types of tongs, but like many other tools, they rapidly increase in number, and a single forge will have 20-50 pairs of different sizes and in various modifications.

All tongs are made to grasp their work by means of a " coupler " embracing the handles or reins (Fig. 229 H), and just tapped over with a hammer until they tighten themselves, so that the smith has only to turn the tongs and work about, the coupler maintaining a firm hold of the jaws on the work.

For cutting off bars, rounding edges, and rough dressing of forgings to shape, the chisels, or "sets," and the gouges are employed. First there is the anvil cutter (Fig. 230), whose shank drops into the square hole in the anvil, before mentioned. The chisel edge being therefore uppermost, when a bar of cold iron is placed across it and struck with the hammer, the bar being rotated the while, the latter is nicked circularly, and may then be easily broken across the edge of the anvil, the fracture appearing of a crystalline character. The "hot" and "cold " sets (Figs. 231, 232) are also chisel-like tools, the difference in these consisting in the angle at which they are ground, the "hot set " being ground thin, the "cold set " relatively thick, and used, as their names imply, for cutting bars hot or cold. These arc handled in a similar fashion to hammers, or on withy rods or rods of iron, the sketches indicating both forms, and the modes of handling applying indifferently to either. Tools like Figs. 233, 234, differ only in respect to their width and radii, their edges being curved to various 8 weeps for cutting corresponding outlines on red hot iron.