This section is from the book "The Tinman's Manual And Builder's And Mechanic's Handbook", by Isaac Ridler Butt. Also available from Amazon: The Tinman's Manual And Builder's And Mechanic's Handbook.
No. 79. Brown Bronze Dip. - Iron Scales, 1 lb.; Arsenic, 1 02. Muriatic Acid, 1 lb.;Zinc, (solid,) 1 oz.
Let the Zinc be kept in only while it is in use.
No. 80 Green Bronze Dip. - Wine Vinegar, 2 qts.3 Verditer Green,
2 ozs.; Sal Ammoniac, 1 oz; Salt, 2 ozs.; Alum, ½oz.; French Berries, 8 ozs.; boil the ingredients together.
No 8l. Aquafortis BRONZE Dip. - Nitric Acid, 8 ozs.; Muriatio Acid, 1 qt: Sal Ammoniac,2ozs.; Alum, 1 oz.; Salt, 2 ozs.; Water,2 galls.
Add the Salt after boiling the other ingredients, and use it hot.
Mix in a bottle. Apply it with a fine brush, the vessel being lull of boiling water Varnish after the application of the bronze.
No. 84. Bronze, for all kinds of Metal. - Muriate of Ammonia 'Sal Ammoniac), 4 drs.; Oxalic Acid, 1 dr.; Vinegar, 1 pint.
Dissolve the Oxalic Acid first. Let the work be clean. Put on the bronze with a brush, repeating the operation as many times as may be necessary.
No. 86. To Bronze Gun Barrels. - Dilute Nitric Acid with Water and rub the gun barrels with it; lay them by for a few days, then rub them with Oil and polish them with bees-wax.
No. 87. For Tinning Brass. - Water, 2 pails full; Cream of Tartar, 1-2 lb.; Salt, 1-2 pint.
Shaved or Grained Tin. - Boil the work in the mixture, keeping it in motion during the time of boiling.
No. 88. Silvering by Heat. - Dissolve 1 oz. of Silver in Nitric Acid; add a small quantity of Salt; then wash it and add Sal Ammoniac, or 6 ozs. of Salt and White Vitriol; also ¼ oz. of Corrosive Sublimate, rub them together till they form a paste, rub the piece which is to be Silvered with the paste, heat it till the Silver runs, after which dip it in a weak Vitriol pickle to clean it.
No. 89. Mixture for Silvering. - Dissolve 2 ozs. of Silver with 3 grains of Corrosive Sublimate; add Tartaric Acid, 4 lbs.; Salt, 8 qts.
No. 90. Separate Silver from Copper. - Mix Sulphuric Acid, 1 part; Nitric Acid, 1 part; Water, 1 part; boil the metal in the mixture till it is dissolved, and throw in a little Salt to cause the Silver to subside.
No. 91. Solvent for Gold. - Mix equal quantities of Nitric and Muriatic Acids.
No. 92. Varnish, for Smooth Moulding Patterns. - Alcohol., 1 gall.; Shell Lac, 1 lb.; Lamp or Ivory Black, sufficient to color it.
No 93. Fine Black Varnish, for Coaches. - Melt in an Iron pot, Amber, 32 ozs.; Resin, 6 ozs.; Asphaltum, 6 ozs.; Drying Linseed Oil, 1 pt.; when partly cooled add Oil of Turpentine, wormed, 1 pt.
No. 94. Chinese White Copper. - Copper, 40.4; Nickel. 31.6; Zinc, 25.4; and Iron, 2.6 parts.
No. 95. Manheim Gold. - Copper, 3; Zinc, 1 part; and a small quantity of Tin.
No. 96. Alloy of the Standard Measures used by the British Government. - Copper, 576; Tin. 59; and Brass, 48 parts. No. 97. Bath Metal. - Brass, 32; and Zinc, 9 parts.
No. 98. Speculum Metal. - Copper,6; Tin,2; and Arsenic, 1 part Or, Copper, 7; Zinc, 3; and Tin, 4 parts.
No. 99. Hard Solder. - Copper, 2; Zinc, 1 part.
No. 100. Blanched Copper. - Copper, 8; and Arsenic, ½ part.
No. 101. Britannia Metal. - Brass, 4; Tin, 4 parts; when fused, add Bismuth. 4; and Antimony, 4 parts.
This composition is added at discretion to melted Tin.
No. 102. Plumber's Solder. - Lead, 2; Tin, I part.
No. 103. Tinman's Solder. - Lead, 1; Tin, 1 part.
No. 104. Pewterer's Solder. - Tin, 2; Lead, 1 part.
No. 105. Common Pewter. - Tin,4; Lead, 1 part.
No. 106. Best Pewter. - Tin, 100; Antimony, 17 parts.
No. 107. A Metal that Expands in Cooling. - Lead, 9; Antimony, 2; Bismuth, 1 part.
This Metal is very useful in filling small defects in Iron castings, etc.
No. 108. Queen's Metal. - Tin, 9; Antimony, 1; Bismuth, 1; Read, 1 part.
No. 109. Mock Platinum. - Brass, 8; Zinc, 5 parts.
No. 110. Silver Coin of the United States. - Pure Silver, 9; Alloy, 1 part; the alloy of silver is fine copper.
No. 111. Gold Coin of the United States. - Pure Gold, 9; Alloy. 1 part; the alloy of gold is ¼ silver and ¾ copper, (not to exceed ½ silver).
No. 112. Silver Coin of Great Britain. - Pure Silver, 11.1; Copper, 9.9 parts.
No. 113. Gold Coin of Great Britain. - Pure Gold, 11; Copper, 1 part.
Previous to 1S2G Silver formed part of the alloy of Gold coin; hence the different color of English Gold money.
No. 114. Ring Gold. - Pure Copper, 6½ pwts.; Fine Silver, 3 2/3 pwts.; Pure Gold, 1 oz. and 5 pwts.
No. 115. Mock Gold. - Fuse together Copper, 16; Platinum,7; Zinc, 1 part.
When Steel is alloyed with 1.500 part of Platinum, or with 1-500 part of Silver, it is rendered much harder, more malleable, and better adapted for every kind of cutting Instrument.
Note. - In making alloys, care must be taken to have the more infusible metals melted first, and afterwards add the others.
No. 116. Composition Used in Welding Cast Steel. - Borax, 10; Sal Ammoniac, 1 part; grind or pound them roughly together; then fuse them in a metal pot over a clear fire, taking care to continue the heat until all spume has disappeared from the surface. When the liquid appears clear, the composition is ready to he poured out to cool and concrete} afterwards beinig ground to a fine powder, it is ready for use.
To use this composition, the Steel to be welded is raised to a heat which may be expressed by "bright yellow;" it is then dipped among the welding powder and again placed in the fire until it attains the same degree of heat as before, it is then ready to be placed under the hammer.
No. 117. Cast Iron Cement. - Clean borings, or turnings, of Cast Iron, l6; Sal Ammoniac, 2; Flour of Sulphur, 1 part; mix them well together in a mortar and keep them dry. When required for use, take of the mixture, 1; clean borings, 20 parts; mix thoroughly, and add a sufficient quantity of water.
A little grindstone dust added improves the cement.
No. 118. Booth's Patent Grease, for Railway Axles. - Water. 1 gall.; Clean Tallow, 3 lbs.; Palm Oil, 6 lbs.; Common Soda, ½ lb. Or, Tallow,8 1bs.; Palm Oil. 10.
The mixture to be heated to about 210° F., and well stirred till it cools down to about 70°, when it is ready for use.
No. 119. CEMENT, for Steam-pipe Joints, etc., with FacedFlanges. -White Lead, mixed.2; Red Lead,dry, 1 part; grind or otherwise mix them to a consistence of thin putty, apply interposed layers with one or two thicknesses of canvas or gauze wire, as the necessity of the case may be.
No. 120. Soft Cement, for Steam-boilers, Steam-pipes, etc. - Red or White Lead, in oil, 4; Iron borings, 2 to 3 parts.
No. 121. Hard Cement. - Iron Borings and Salt Water, and a small quantity of Sal Ammoniac with Fresh Water.
No. 122. Staining Wood and Ivory. - Yellow.- DiluteNitric Acid will produce it on wood.
Red. - An infusion of Brazil Wood in stale urine, in the proportion of a pound to a gallon for wood; to be laid on when boiling hot. and should be laid over with alum water before it dries. Or, a solution of Dragon's Blood in spirits of wine, may be used.
Black. - Strong solution of Nitric Acid, for wood or ivory.
Mahogany. - Brazil, Madder, and Logwood, dissolved in water and put on hot.
Blue. - Ivory may be stained thus: Soak it in a solution of Verdigris in Nitric Acid, which will turn it green; then dip it into a solution of Pearlash boiling hot.
Purple. - Soak ivory in a solution of Sal Ammoniac into four times its weight of Nitrous Acid.