41 & 42. sampler - Showing offshoots from satin and crewel stitches, and incidentally illustrating various ways of shading. A, crewel-stitch ; B, plumage-stitch, worked in the hand ;

C, split-stitch ; D, plumage-stitch, worked in the frame.

43. darning sampler - Except in the background the stitches follow the lines of the drawing, regardless of the weaving of the stuff. The customary outlining of the pattern is here omitted, to show how far it may, or may not, be needful.

44. DARNING - DESIGNED BY WILLIAM MORRIS. Ill delicate colours upon a sea-green ground, outlined with black and white. Part of the border of a table-cloth, the property of Messrs Morris & Co.

45. flat darning - Solid and open, following the lines of a square mesh, and stepping in tune with it; the outline voided; all in white thread. Old German. (Gewerbs Museum, Munich.)

46. laid-work sampler, showing various ways (spilt-stitch and couching) in which the sewing down may be done, and the various directions it may take - vertical, horizontal, following the ornamental forms, or crossing them.

47. laid-work - The couching crosses the flower forms in straight lines; and in the eye of the flower where the threads cross, the two are sewn down at a single stitch. The spiral stems a sort of laid cord. Flower in blue, sewn with blue and outlined with gold ; leaves, a bright fresh green stitched with olive. Japanese. (V. & A. M.)

48. laid-work. The sewing down of the leaves crosses them in curved lines which suggest roundness. The stem in gold basket pattern. Part of a coverlet. Worked upon a cedar-coloured ground chiefly in dark blue and white, the blue couched with white, the white and other colours couched with red. Indo-Portuguese. 17th century. (V. & A. M.)

49. laid-work and some surface-stitch. The stitching which sews down the floss takes the direction of the scroll, etc, and gives drawing. The surface work in the stems is done upon a ladder of stitches across. Part of a chalice veil. Italian. Early 17th century. (V. & A. M.)

50. laid-work sampler - The straight lines of laid floss varied in colour to suggest shading. The stalk padded, and the pattern made by the stitching upon it thereby emphasised.

51. BULLION and COUCHED CORD - A, the somewhat loose design of the border in bullion shows rather plainly the way it is done. B, the solid discs of spiral cord are unusual, but most characteristic of the method of couching. The stitches sewing down the cord are not apparent. Oriental. (Mrs L. F. D.)

52. sampler OF couched SILK - The broad central band and the narrow beaded lines are in floss, and show the effect of sewing it more or less tightly down. The two intermediate bands are in cord couched with threads in the direction of its twist, not very easily distinguishable unless by contrast of colour.

53. couching in looped threads - The effect is not unlike that of chain-stitch or fine knotting. Rather over actual size. Worked in bright colours upon a pale green crepe ground. Chinese. (Mrs L. F. D.)

54. reverse couching - Showing on the face of it no sign of couching. (After the manner of the Syon Cope.)

55. back of reverse couching - Showing the parallel lines of couched linen thread which sew down the silk upon the surface (Illustration 54 (Reverse Couching)). The zigzag pattern of the stitching might equally well have taken other lines.

56. COUCHED GOLD sampler - A, B, C, D, flat work ; E, part flat, part raised; F, G, H, J, basket and other patterns raised over cords.

57. couching in various diaper patterns, outlined in part with "plate." Silver on pale pink silk. (Coll. of Mrs T. Buxton Morrish.)

58. gold couching in open threads - A, the lines of gold which form a scale pattern on the dragon's body, are wide enough apart to let the red ground grin through. Elsewhere the couching, contrary to mediaeval practice, follows the shapes, line within line until they are occupied. The floss embroidery, in white and colours, is in surface satin-stitch. Chinese. B, the open lines of gold look somehow richer than if the metal had been worked solid upon the crimson ground. Old Venetian. (Mrs L. F. D.)

59. COUCHED outline WORK; only an occasional detail worked solid; suggests damascening. The border is in gold, the filling in silver, thread on a greyish-green velvet. Part of an Italian housing or saddlecloth. 16th century. (V. & A. M.)

60. applique - Satin upon velvet, outlined with two threads of gold couching.

61. applique panel - Designed and executed by Miss Mabel

Keighley, illustrating a poem by William Morris. (The property of the artist.)

62. a. counter-change pattern, inlay or applique - Yellow satin and crimson velvet. The outline, which is in gold, falls chiefly upon the yellow, so as not to disturb the exact balance of light and dark, which it is essential to preserve in counter-change. Part of a stole. Spanish. 16th century. (V. &A. M.)

B. applique, of deep crimson velvet upon white satin, outlined with paler red cord. The outlines, meeting together, form a stem of double cord. Italian. 17th century. (V. & A. M.)

63. applique, with couched outline, and stitching upon the applique band or ribbon. The dots in the centre of the grapes are French knots. The pattern is in satin of various colours, upon a figured green silk damask, outlined with yellow silk sewn down with yellow. Italian. (V. &. A. M.)

64. inlay in coloured cloths, outlined with chain stitch.

Magic stitch also occurs. A characteristic example of the kind of work done at Retsht, in Persia. (Mrs L. F. D.)

65. cut-work in linen - A fret of this kind was often outlined with coloured silk, and the detail within the fretted outline further embroidered in coloured silk. (Coll. of Mrs Drake.)

66. sampler of raised work, showing underlays: A, of cloth ;

B, of twisted cords; C, of parchment; D, of cotton wool ; E, first of cotton cord and then of cotton thread ; F, of cord; G, of string ; H, of sewing.