This section is from the book "Scientific Sewing And Garment Cutting", by Antoinette Van Hoesen Wakeman. Also available from Amazon: Scientific Sewing And Garment Cutting: For Use In Schools And In The Home.
Up to this point the pupil has been engaged in becoming familiar with the needle and thimble and the different stitches used in sewing. Now the scissors are added to the implements which will be constantly employed, for the work of this grade includes some of the fundamental principles of drafting and cutting. In this work, as in the sewing, the natural method of development by gradual unfoldment is followed.
The first thing is to teach the child to use the scissors. Scissors about five inches long should be selected; and they should be of good steel, and sharp. The first material used should be heavy manilla drafting-paper, laid off in half-inch squares; and the pupils should be required to cut carefully along the lines until they can follow them accurately.
When this has been accomplished, they may be given a piece of checked gingham to cut along the line of the design. When the pupils can cut a straight line, they may draft the first model of this grade.
First draw a parallelogram twenty-four inches long and twelve inches wide, on the blackboard, explaining what a parallelogram is. Then let the pupils draw and cut out of the manilla drafting-paper a parallelogram half this size, which can be done easily, as the paper is laid off in half-inch squares. After this let each pupil cut a parallelogram of the gingham twenty-four inches long and twelve inches wide. This will not be difficult, the straight lines of the checked design forming an accurate guide. This is the simple outline of the gingham case, which is the first model in fine thread fabric.
When the parallelogram has been cut, measure at one end three inches each way from both corners, draw oblique lines, and cut off the corners. From the lower corners of the oblique lines, measure clown eleven inches, and draw a dotted line to show where the parallelogram is folded to form the case.
Turn in the edge along the last thread of a white line of squares, crease evenly through the center of the next line of brown squares, and baste so that the design is not broken. Hem on the last white thread of the third line of squares, beginning to count after the first edge has been turned in. Let the hemming be done on this last white thread of the third square. This may seem an unnecessary exaction; but let it be remembered that the educational value of this system is lost if the nicest precision is not observed. Again, when correct habits are formed, it is as easy - nay, it is easier -to do a thing well as ill.
For this hemming, No. 70 white cotton thread should be used. The stitch should be so lightly taken that it is not noticeable on the right side and along the first white thread of the last check.
Turn and baste the straight and diagonal ends of the model the same as the sides, being careful to exactly match the design of the model to a thread. When these hems are basted, turn them back, and overhand them with fine, shallow stitches, instead of hemming in the usual way. This is called the linen hem, as it is used for table napery.
Model of Gingham Case.
When the model has been hemmed, fold it on the dotted line, ten inches from the square end, which leaves four inches for a flap at the top; hold so that the squares match exactly, and overhand together.
This model is finished by two linen-tape loops, sewed on one inch from the corners of the flap. The tape is first overhanded together the width of the hem, and then is over-handed onto the hem and across the top. The flap is then turned down; and the buttons, which should be covered with white linen, are placed in the center of each loop, with a piece of tape under each to hold it firm.
By the work of this grade the children are made capable of doing at least a portion of that most important part of the work of the household, - the mending. The teacher should make it a point to have each child, as soon as she has learned to do a certain kind of work well, undertake that work at home, so as to assist her mother. She can now not only do a variety of stitches and darning, but she can put loops on the towels she has hemmed, and assist in plain sewing; and she should be encouraged to do this work independently, the teacher examining and discussing what she does at home. She should also be required to keep her own clothes mended. While faults must of course be recognized and pointed out, severe criticism of work done independently should be avoided; and merit should be praised, in order that the children may not be discouraged, but be incited to unaided and original effort.
Model of Gingham Case Finished.
What is drafting? Ans. It is drawing a plan or pattern.
What is the first thing to be done when one is going to draft? Ans. To take the measures and set them down.
What is a parallelogram? Ans. A figure bounded by four straight lines with opposite sides parallel.
What is the shape of the first model of this grade as it is drafted? Ans. A parallelogram.
What are the dimensions? Ans. Twenty-four inches long by twelve inches wide.
When the measures have been taken, and the paper parallelogram pattern drawn and cut, what is the next thing to be done? Ans. Pin on the cloth, and cut very carefully on a thread of the gingham.
What will this model be when it is finished? Ans. A case.
How is the flap formed? Ans. At one end measure three inches each way from both corners, draw oblique lines, and cut off the corners by them.
What is the next thing to be done after the case is cut? Ans. Measure down eleven inches, and draw a dotted line to show where the parallelogram is folded to form the case.
When this is done, what is the next step? Ans. Turn in the edge, and crease a hem along the second line of the squares and baste so that they match exactly.
How are the two ends of the model finished? Ans. They are hemmed in the same way as the sides.
How is this hemming done? Ans With the overhand stitch.
What is this sort of hemming called? Ans. Linen hemming, because it is used for table linen.
How is the case formed? Ans. By doubling it along the line drawn to indicate the bottom of the case, bringing the squares of the design together so that they match exactly, then basting and overhanding together.
How is this model finished? Ans. With two linen loops, one on each side, overhanded together, the width of the hem hemmed on with an overhand stitch, and two buttons sewed on, with a piece of tape under them to make them strong.