This section is from the book "Scientific Sewing And Garment Cutting", by Antoinette Van Hoesen Wakeman. Also available from Amazon: Scientific Sewing And Garment Cutting: For Use In Schools And In The Home.
The second model in this grade is a piece of canvas, six and one-half inches square, upon which the first two kinds of darning of the course are done. Let the pupil measure, draft, and cut this square, which, although small and simple, is somewhat more difficult to draft and cut than the gingham with its clearly defined designs.
Canvas Darning Square.
When it is cut, let it first of all be overcast. Then put the edges together and crease through the center, and run a thread of red Saxony wool either side of this crease, taking up one thread and leaving one with a thread of canvas between the two. Fold the canvas in the opposite direction, crease through the center, and again run two threads of red Saxony wool on either side of this crease, leaving a thread of canvas between them, and dividing the model into four squares.
From these lines count thirty-four threads of canvas each way, and put in a line in the red wool, taking up two threads and leaving two around the whole model.
Three threads from the line which forms a square within the square put in a solid edge line of blanket stitch in red Saxony wool on each side of the model. The fringing of the model outside of this blanket stitching is left until the last, so that when it is finished it may be quite fresh and clean.
To prepare the model for the two sorts of darns which it exemplifies, count off in each of the four small squares twelve threads from the side and six threads from the top and bottom. Begin at the top, and run an outline thread to the point six threads from the bottom. Count ten threads to the right, and run another thread like the first, beginning six threads from the top, and ending the same distance from the bottom of the small square. This forms a bar ten threads wide and twenty-two long. Outline another bar crossing this at right angles in the same way, and the same number of threads wide and long. After outlining two bars of this sort in each of the four squares, baste a piece of cardboard under one of them.
The two outlined bars under which the cardboard has been placed form a small square in the center of a square. Six threads beyond the limit of this square, along the line of the outline bar, the darning is begun by taking up one thread and leaving one, until the center square, formed by the two bare, is reached. At this point leave ten threads, drawing the red Saxony darning wool straight across, and again take up every other stitch on the other side of the square for six stitches. Continue this until the opposite outline of the bar is reached. Then turn the model, and fill in the bar that crosses this at right angles in the same way, with the exception that the loose center warp threads are woven under and over, each alternate thread being taken up on the needle. In the opposite diagonal corner repeat this darn, which is known as the stocking darn.
The darning in the third square of the model is diagonal or linen darning. The first threads, which represent the warp, are straight across, like those in stocking darning. Outside of the small central square, the threads are woven over and under as in stocking darning. When the center is reached, take up two threads, and leave two the first time across. The second time across, first take up a single thread, and after that take up two and leave two. The third time across, first leave two, then take up two and leave two. The fourth time across, leave the first thread, and after that take up two threads and leave two. Repeat this, beginning with the first, until the square is filled. The fourth square is done in the same way. The practical application of this darning is to baste a piece of cardboard under the hole, which is then cut out square. If it is linen or any diagonal weave, use the linen darn; and if the under and over weave, use the stocking darn.
What is the second model in this grade? Ans. A square of canvas six and a half inches each way.
What is the first thing to be done after drafting and cutting this square? Ans. To overcast the edges.
Then what should be done? Ans. Put the two edges together, crease through the center, and run a thread of red Saxony either side of this crease, taking up two threads and leaving two.
What is the next step? Ans. Fold the model in the same way in the opposite direction, crease, and run a thread of red Saxony either side of the center.
What do these two lines put in from opposite sides form? Ans. Four squares within the model.
What is the next step? Ans. Count thirty-four threads each way from these double lines, and at this distance run a line of red Saxony on each side of the model.
What is next to be done? Arts. Three threads from this line of running that bounds the square, put in on each side a solid line of blanket stitching in red Saxony.
How many kinds of darns are there on this model? Ans. Two, the stocking and the linen darn.
How is the stocking darn begun? Ans. Count off in one of the four small squares twelve threads from the sides and six at the top and bottom. Begin at the top, and run an outline thread to the point six threads from the bottom.
Where is the next thread placed? Ans. Count ten threads to the right, and run another thread like the first, which forms a bar ten threads wide.
What is the next step? Ans. Outline another bar, in every way like this, at right angles with it.
Is this kind of crossed bars outlined in each of the four squares? Ans. It is.
What should always be basted under material that is to be darned? Ans. A piece of cardboard.
After the cardboard is basted under the crossed bars, how is the darning done? Ans. Six threads toward the edge from the square formed by the crossed bars, begin the darning next to the outline thread, taking up one thread, and leaving one until the center square is reached.
What does the center square represent? Ans. The space to be darned; the thread is taken over it without stitches.
Where do the stitches begin again? Ans. On the other side of the square; one thread is taken up, and the other left for six threads.
What do these threads represent? Ans. The warp.
How are the cross threads or weft of stocking darning put in? Ans. Like the warp thread, except in the center, where it is woven under and over the warp threads.
How many times is this darn repeated in model? Ans. Once.
In what part of the model is the first linen darn? Ans. In the third square.
How is it put in? Ans. The warp is put in like the stocking darn.
How is the first thread of the weft put in? Ans. Until the center of the cross bar square is reached, the thread is put in over and under the canvas threads, the same as the stocking darning. At the center, take up two threads and leave two.
How is the second thread put in? Ans. Like the first until the center of the bar is reached, then take up one thread, and after that leave two and take up two.
How is the third thread put in? Like the first and second until the center is reached, then begin by leaving two, take up two and leave two.
How is the fourth thread put in? Ans. The same as the others as far as the center, then, leaving the first thread, take up two and leave two.
How is this darning finished? Ans. The way in which the first, second, third, and fourth threads are taken up are repeated until the square is filled.
How is this model finished? Ans. By raveling out the edge to the blanket stitching.
How are these darns used in mending? Ans. A piece of pasteboard is basted under the hole, which is then cut square. If the fabric to be darned is over and under wove, the stocking darn is used, if diagonal, the linen darn.