This section is from the book "Scientific Sewing And Garment Cutting", by Antoinette Van Hoesen Wakeman. Also available from Amazon: Scientific Sewing And Garment Cutting: For Use In Schools And In The Home.
For the second model in this grade, cut a piece of canvas eight and a half inches square. It will be observed that this canvas, while similar to that used for the first model, is still quite different, being softer, more closely woven, and in every way much more like cloth. The reason for this change is that the pupils are thus brought gradually nearer to the various fabrics upon which they will be required later on to do practical work.
When this square has been carefully cut along the line of the threads, from each of the width sides of the model, count ten threads on the length side, or the selvage. Along the line of the eleventh thread put in a row of basting in red marking-cotton. This is the guide for the beginning of the different designs of this second model.
When the lines of red basting have been placed ten threads from what we will call the width edges, fold the square, bringing the sides which have not been marked with basting evenly together. Crease the center by a thread, and along this line put a basting in blue marking-cotton. Although the designs are begun at the red basting at one end, and continued no farther than the one at the other end, the threads with which the designs are worked must be left as long as the model. This will give little notes of color in the fringe, which is formed by raveling out the weft threads along this edge as far as the point where the designs are begun.
When the blue basting-thread in the center of the model has been placed, count two threads of the canvas on each side and put in lines of basting in red marking-cotton, which forms the central design of a group of one blue line and two red lines of basting-stitches.
When this model is prepared, before work is begun on it, explain to the class that the width of cloth is the space between the selvages; that the warp is the thread which is lengthwise of the cloth, in a line with the selvage, and the weft is the thread which extends across the fabric. When this is thoroughly understood, let the work on the model be commenced.
Upon what are you now beginning to work? Ans. A new model. Of what is the new model made? Ans. Of Java canvas.
How large is it? Ans. Eight and one-half inches wide by eight and one-half inches long.
What is a figure called that is the same size on all four sides? Ans. A square.
How are the threads of all kinds of canvas woven together? Ans. In small squares. .
What is the first work on this model? Ans. To put a line of red basting ten threads from the two weft or width edges of the model.
What are these end lines for? Ans. To show where the different designs are to be begun, and where they are to end.
Is the work on this model begun at the side? Ans. No; it is commenced in the center and worked both ways.
What is the first design? Ans. A blue basting-line in the center of the model with a red one on either side of it.
In beginning the work on these models, is the thread pulled up close to the first stitch? Ans. No; it is left long enough to reach to the edge of the model.
Why are the threads used in making the designs left long enough to reach to the end of the model? Ans. That the fringe may be made prettier by having a few colored threads mingled with it.
How many colors are used in making the designs of this model? Ans. There are two colors, red and blue.
Why are two colors used? Ans. To make the model more attractive.
What does this second model form when finished? Ans. A very pretty little mat.