The following instructions are given for those using prepared paper patterns:

When the patterns do not intersect you may cut them apart for convenience. Lay the pattern on the material, place it so it will cut to the greatest advantage and not waste lumber, fasten patterns securely with a few tacks, and then prick through with an awl on lines of patterns. When the lines curve, make the prick marks close; follow outside of the line which gives you room to dress with plane after the piece is cutout; take pattern off and drive some nails in the marks made by awl. Now take a thin strip or batten and bend it up to the nails, then mark in the line. This will reproduce the same lines on the lumber that are on the pattern. This method saves the pattern from being destroyed. Another way is to use a tracing wheel, the same as used n dressmaking, and by rolling it over the pattern the points will prick through and leave a mark so that the battens will be unnecessary. A bandy way to mark out the plank is to cut the patterns apart, lay them on the material and drive some small nails through the patterns on the lines, then bend battens up to nails, and by using the sharp point of a knife the patterns will be cut to shape and the material marked at the same time.

A Racing Sailboat 144

Fig. 4.

A Racing Sailboat 145

Fig. 5.

A Racing Sailboat 146

Fig. 6.

Make two ordinary saw horses, such as carpenters use. Make these about 20 in. high and 6 ft. 6 in. long.

The Backbone

The first step is the making of the backbone. This forms the truss that gives strength to the boat and takes the place of keel and center-board box in ordinary sail boats. The backbone extends the length of the boat, and reaches from top to bottom edge, holding the ribs and its top edge, the deck-beams.

The backbone is made double for the full length and consists of two boards bolted together with the mast-step, head-ledge, butt-block, stern-post and after butt block fastened between them. With the pattern of the backbone is given a pattern showing an edge view of the backbone with these pieces in place between the two boards that from the sides of the backbone.

This is also plainly shown in illustration 2.

First get out the two sides of the backbone and shape both of these from the one pattern (marked backbone.)

Note

If you have been able to get these boards in 18-ft. lengths, each side will be made in one piece; however, this is seldom possible. The usual way is to make each side of the two pieces, letting them end on the butt-block that forms the after head-ledge of the center-board box. For this reason an extra wide piece is used for this butt-block, which allows of two rows of bolts, as shown in illustration 4. This makes it just as strong as though the sides were in one piece.

Now, get out the head-ledge, butt-block and stern-post, and place these pieces at their stations between the sides, as shown on the patterns, and clamp the whole together, fastening with 1/4-in. carriage bolts 3 in. long. For these three pieces use about 22 bolts, as shown in illustration 4.

Shape the mast-step from the pattern (marked step.) The mast-step should be about 2 1/4 in. thick, and as your material for this is 1 1/8 in. thick, get out two pieces and nail them together to give proper thickness. You need mortise the hole that receives the end of the spar in the top piece only. Put the step in place and then bring the two ends of the side together at the forward end, holding with clamps, and fasten with a dozen nails through sides into edge of step, and with two or three 1 1/2-in. No. 12 screws at the end of sides to hold them in place. The after end of the backbone is not brought together, as is the forward end, but has a block 1 1/8 in. thick between the side pieces, as shown on patterns. This is also shown in illustration 2. This end block is fastened in place with a couple of 1/4 X 3 in. carriage bolts.

Get out the two cheek pieces and cut the mortises to receive the ribs in their lower edge, as shown on patterns. Fasten the cheek pieces on each side of the backbone with twelve l 1/2-in. screws to each cheek-piece, then cut the rest of the mortises in the backbone. These are to receive the ribs and deck-beams, which pieces extend clear across from side to side of boat, excepting at the center-board, and at this place the ribs end in mortises of the cheek-pieces, as shown in illustration No. 6. Cut the mortises a scant 7/8 in. square so that the ribs and deck-beams will fit tight.

Center-Board

Make this of three pieces doweled together with 1/4 in. drift bolts. Cut the dowels from 1/4 in. round rods and have them about 9 in. long. Put the three parts that form the center board together and bore through the edge of the two outside ones into the edge of the middle one, then drive in the drift-bolts. The board may then be trimmed to shape of pattern. Another way to fasten the center-board together would be to let in three iron straps on each side so that they would be flush. These straps should be 1/8-of an inch thick and one inch wide. Have them drilled and counter-sunk every three inches for 1/4-in. rivets, the same rivet fastening the strap on both sides. After riveting on the straps, file down the heads so that they will be flush with the sides of the board to prevent binding. Or, a third and perhaps the simplest way would be to have the center-board cut from a plate of sheet iron 1/8 of an inch thick. (Note. - If iron center-board is used reduce the thickness of the head-ledge and buttock to | of an inch.)

The alter end of the board is connected by a clevis to a chain for raising and lowering it, and the forward end is fastened in place by the king-bolt. This is a 1/2-in. carriage bolt, 4$ in. long that is put through the cheek-pieces, back-bone and center-board, at the point marked with a small circle on the patterns.

To Set Up Boat

Get out the two side boards. These are both shaped from the pattern marked " side ". Next, cut out and shape the two end pieces. These are straight pieces about 7 1/2 ft. long and 3 in. wide, and are bent to a circle, shown on patterns.

Illustration 6 shows the manner in which the end pieces are bent. The illustration, however, shows a larger piece than the end piece is. To bend the end pieces, nail up some blocks on the floor to give the same circle as is shown by the pattern; then steam the pieces well and bend them on while hot, after which they may be secured by nailing on a stay, as shown in illustration 5.

Place the two saw horses about 13 1/2 ft. apart and parallel to each other; place the back-bone in the middle of these horses, letting an equal amount extend beyond each horse; place the back-bone on edge with its bottom edge up. Nail four pieces, 1 1/4 in. thick, on top of horses, one piece on each side of the back-bone on each horse. Each one of these pieces should be about two feet long and be placed at the outer ends of the horses.

The object of these pieces is to properly raise the side. Place the two side boards on edge, upside down, so that they will be parallel to the back-bone and about three feet from it. Have the ends of the side pieces extend an equal distance beyond the horses. These side pieces will, of course, rest on the 1 1/4 blocks that have been nailed to the top of the horses. Now cut a couple of pieces 2 ft. 9 1/2 in. long and about 6 in. wide. These pieces are for spreaders, to hold the side pieces in proper distance from the back-bone. Place a spreader at each side of the back-bone at its center, and let one end of the spreader end against the backbone, and the other against the inside of side piece. These pieces may be held temporarily by toe-nailing them to place.

After the spreaders are in, the ends of the sides are each drawn in until the two sides are five feet apart at the ends, measuring from their outer edges. The sides may be held in place by blocks nailed on the horses,

Try both end pieces up to place and round off the back-bone to fit the curve of the end pieces. When fastened in place, the end pieces connect the ends of the two sides and the back-bone. These end pieces are purposely made a little long so that you may saw them off to exact length after they are in place. First, fasten the center of the end pieces to the ends of the back-bone with a couple of l 1/2 in. No. 12 screws and two or three casing nails. Have the top edge of the end piece flush with the top edge of the back-bone. Saw off the ends of the end pieces so that they will butt against the ends of the side pieces (that is the two pieces will come end to end). This joint, or butt, is fastened by putting a butt-block, covering the joint on the inside, as shown in illustration 6. This butt-block is of 1 1/8 in. oak about 8 in. long. The end pieces are fastened to the block with three or four 1 1/4 in. No. 12 screws in each piece. Where these butt blocks come on the end pieces, they should be made to fit the curve.

Ribs

Make a bending form by shaping the edge of a board to conform to the pattern (bending form). This form is used to shape the ribs, and it is given with more bend than is required, for the reason that the ribs will straighten some when they are taken off the form. It will be convenient to make the bending form from two boards with short pieces nailed across them so as to make it wide enough to allow of a number of ribs being bent at the same time. If made in this way the form would resemble the truss which masons use to construct an arch over doors and windows in brick walls.

Either steam or soak the ribs in hot water and bend them on the form, tying their ends down with cord. Let them stand until cold, then remove them one at a time and fasten directly to place. The ribs go straight across and are fastened to each side of the back-bone with one eight-penny casing nail, their outer ends being mortised one-half inch into the lower edge of the side piece; that is, the ribs are mortised in with their bottoms flush with the bottom of the sides, but these mortises do not go though to the outside of the side pieces. See illustration 6. The outer ends of the ribs are fastened to the side pieces with one eight-penny casing nail in each end.