Class.

Number of Establishments.

Capital.

Proprietors and

Firm Members

Wage-earners.

Average Number.

Total Wages

Total.....................

640,056

$9,858,205,501

708,623

5,370,814

$2,323,055,634

Hand trades....................................

215,814

392,442,255

242,154

559,130

288,118,421

Governmental establishments ....

138

Educational, eleemosynary, and penal institutions...........................

381

Establishments with a product of less than $500................

127,346

44,371,111

136,054

64,671

2,117,466

All other establishments.................................

296,377

9,421,392,135

330,415

4,747,013

2,032,819,747

Statistics for governmental establishments, educational, eleemosynary, and penal insti-

[Twelfth Census,

Items.

1900.1

Date of Census 1890.

1880.

Number of establishments.............

512,276

355,405

253,852

Capital..........................................

$9,831,486,500

$6,525,050,759

$2,790,272,606

Salaried officials, clerks, etc., number . . .

397,092

2 461,001

(3)

Salaries...........................

$404,112,794

2 $391,984,660

(3)

Wage-earners, average number.........

5,314,539

4,251,535

2,732,595

Total wages..........................

$2,327,295,545

$1,891,209,696

$947,953,795

Men, at least 16 years of age..........................

4,114,348

3,326,964

2,019,035

Wages..................

$2,019,954,204

$1,659,215,858

(3)

Women, at least 16 years of age..........................

1,031,608

803,686

531,639

Wages..........................

$281,679,649

$215,367,976

(3)

Children, at least 16 years of age..........................

168,583

120,885

181,921

Wages......................................

$25,661,692

$16,625,862

(3)

Miscellaneous expenses................

$1,027,865,277

$631,219,783

(5)

Cost of materials used..................................

$7,346,358,979

$5,162,013,878

$3,396,823,549

Value of products, incl. custom work, etc,

$13,010,036,514

$9,372,378,843

$5,309,579,191

1 Includes, for comparative purposes, 85 governmental establishments in the District of Columbia having products valued at $9,887,355, the statistics for such establishments for 1890 not being separable.

2 Includes proprietors and firm members, with their salaries; number only reported in 1900, but not included in this table.

3 Not reported separately.

4 Decrease.

5 Not reported.

Note

Exact comparisons between the censuses shown in this table are difficult and sometimes impossible on account of changes which have taken place from census to census in the form of inquiries contained in the schedules, in the industries canvassed, and in the methods of compilation. Comparisons between the censuses of 1890 and 1900 are more exact than has ever before been the case; but even between these two censuses there are certain important differences in the forms of inquiry, or the methods of handling the statistics in compilation, to which careful attention should be paid.

1. Capital

It cannot be assumed that any true comparability exists between the statistics on this subject elicited prior to 1890. At the census of 1880 the question read: "Capital (real and personal) invested in the business." At the census of 1890 live capital, i.e., cash on hand, bills receivable, unsettled ledger accounts, raw materials, stock in process of manufacture, finished products on hand, and other sundries, was for the first time included as a separate and distinct item of capital, and the capital invested in realty was divided between land, buildings, and machinery. The form of this inquiry at the census of 1890 and 1900 was so similar that comparison may be safely made.

2. Salaried Officials

No comparison of the statistics of the number and salaries or salaried officials of any character can be made between the reports of any censuses. Not until the census of 1890 did the census begin to differentiate sharply between salaried officials, i.e.,