Miscellaneous Expenses.

Cost of Materials Used.

Total.

Purchased in Raw State.

Purchased in

Partially Manufactured

Form.

Fuel,

Freight, etc.

Value of Products, Including Custom Work and Repairing.

$1,030,110,125

$7,363,132,083

$2,391,668,276

$4,648,561,271

$322,902,536

$13,058,562,917

124,623,253

482,736,991

8,851,162

462,510,619

11,375,210

1,183,615,478

6,917,518

60,576

6,607,447

249,495

22,010,391

3,690,916

1,037,343

2,365,089

288,484

6,640,692

2,524,681

8,895,774

1,431,529

7,437.420

26,825

29,762,675

902,962,191

6,860,890,884

2,380,287,666

4,169,640,696

310,962,522

11,816,533,681

tutions, and establishments with a product of less than $500, are included in Table only.

Comparative Summary: 1850 To 1900

Vols. VII. and VIII.

Date of Census.

Per Cent of Increase.

1870.

1860.

1850.

1890 to

1900.

1880 to

1890.

1870 to

1880.

1860 to

1870.

1850 to

1860.

252,148

140,433

123,025

44.1

40.0

0.7

79.6

14.1

$2,118,208,769

$1,009,855,715

$533,245,351

50.7

133.8

31.7

109.8

89.4

(3)

(3)

(3)

4 13.9

(3)

(3)

(3)

3.1

2,053,996

1,311,246

957,059

25.0

55.6

33.0

56.6

37.0

$775,584,343

$378,878,966

$236,755,464

23.1

99.5

22.2

104.7

60.0

1,615,598

1,040,349

731,137

23.7

64.8

25.0

55.3

42.3

(3)

(3)

(3)

21.7

323,770

270,897

225,922

28.4

51.2

64.2

19.5

19.9

(3)

(3)

(3)

30.8

114,628

(3)

(3)

39.5

4 33.6

58.7

(3)

(3)

(3)

54.3

(5)

(5)

(5)

62.8

$2,488,427,242

$1,031,605,092

$555,123,822

42.3

52.0

36.5

141.2

85.8

$4,232,325,442

$1,885,861,676

$1,019,106,616

33.8

74.5

26.9

124.4

85.1

employees engaged at a fixed compensation per annum, and the wage-earning class, i.e., employees paid by the hour, the day, the week, or the piece, for work performed and only for such work. Prior to 1890 such salaried officials, if returned at all, were returned with the wage-earners proper. At the census of 1890 the number and salaries of proprietors and firm members actively engaged in the business, or in supervision, were reported, combined with clerks and other officials. Where proprietors and firm members were reported without salaries, the amount that would ordinarily be paid for similar services was estimated. At the census of 1900 the number of proprietors and firm members actively engaged in industry or in supervision was ascertained, but no salaries were reported for this class, salaries, as a matter of fact, being rarely paid in such cases, proprietors and firm members depending upon the earnings of the business for their compensation.

3. Employees And Wages

At the censuses of 1850 and 1860 the inquiries regarding employees and wages called for "the average number of hands employed: male, female," "the average monthly cost of male labor," and "the average monthly cost of female labor." At the census of 1870 the average number of hands employed was called for. divided between "males above 16 years, females above 15 years, and children and youth," and the "total amount paid in wages during the year" was first called for. The inquiries at the census of 1880 were like those of 1370, though more extended for some of the selected industries.

At the census of 1890 the average number of persons employed during the entire year was called for, and also the average number employed at stated weekly rates of pay, and the average number was computed for the actual time the establishments were reported as being in operation. At the census of 1900 the greatest and least numbers of employees were reported and also the average number employed during each month of the year. The average number of wage-earners (men, women, and children) employed during the entire year was computed in the Census Office by using 12, the number of calendar months, as a divisor into the total of the average numbers reported for each month. This difference in the method of ascertaining the average number of wage-earners during the entire year resulted in a variation in the average number as between the two censuses.

Furthermore, the schedules for 1890 included in the wage-earning class "overseers, and foremen or superintendents (not general superintendents or managers)," while the census of 1900 separates from the wage-earning class such salaried employees as general superintendents, clerks, and salesmen. It is probable that this change in the form of the question has resulted in eliminating from the wage-earners, as reported by the present census, many high-salaried employees included in 1890.

4. Miscellaneous Expenses

This item was not shown at any census prior to that of 1890. Comparison between the totals reported can safely be made between the last two censuses.

5. Materials

The same statement is true regarding the materials used in manufactures. With the exception of the schedules on which a few selected industries were reported at the census of 1880, the question concerning materials was as follows: "Value of materials used (including mill supplies and fuel)." At the census of 1890 the schedule contained separate questions as to the kind, quantity, and cost of the principal materials, and the cost of "mill supplies," "fuel," and "all other materials." The amounts paid for rent of power and heat were also included under this head in 1890. It is probable that some of the items included the cost of materials at the census of 1880 were included in "miscellaneous expenses" at the inquiries of 1890 and 1900.

6. Products

These statistics are comparable beginning with the census of 1870.