Sub-Class II

Gamopetalae ( = Corolliflorae).

Perianth, of calyx and corolla, petals united, stamens epipetalous.

Order 37. Caprifoliaceae. - Shrubs (deciduous), twiners, or herbaceous plants; leaves opposite; stipules in some cases; flowers regular or irregular; calyx 4-5-fid, adnate to ovary; corolla 4-5-fid, lobes twisted in bud; stamens 4-5, epipetalous, alternate with corolla-lobes; stigmas 1-3; ovary 1-5-locular, fruit fleshy, 1 or many-celled.

Order 38. Rubiaceae. - Herbaceous plants; stem square; leaves opposite, apparently in a whorl; stipules leafy; flowers regular; calyx very small, superior; corolla lobes 4-6; stamens 4-5, alternate with corolla lobes; style 1, 2-fid sometimes; ovary 1 or 2-locular; fruit indehiscent.

Order 39. Valerianaceae. - Herbaceous plants; leaves opposite; stipules none; flowers usually irregular; calyx superior, rudimentary, like pappus; corolla 5-lobed, tubular, gibbous or spurred; stamens 1 or 3, epipetalous, free; ovary, with 1 fertile cell; ovule solitary, pendulous; fruit dry.

Order 40. Dipsacaceae. - Herbaceous plants; leaves opposite; stipules none; flowers forming a head, each floret with an epicalyx; calyx superior, of 5 bristles surrounded by an outer calyx; corolla 4-5-fid, lobes unequal; stamens 4, epipetalous, free; style 1; stigma simple; ovary I-celled; ovule pendulous; fruit crowned with pappus-like calyx.

Order 41. Compositae (Asteraceoe). - Herbaceous plants, often forming rosettes; no stipules; inflorescence forming a capitulum; flowerheads surrounded by involucre of bracts or phyllaries; calyx superior, absent or hairy pappus; corolla ligulate or tubular, former usually in ray, latter in disk, or either may predominate; stamens 5; anthers united in a cylinder; filaments free; ovary I-locu-lar; ovule erect; fruit a cypsela, I-seeded.

Order 42. Campanulaceae. - Herbaceous plants; leaves alternate, entire; no stipules; flowers regular or irregular; calyx superior, entire, or 5-fid; corolla gamopetalous, inserted on calyx; 5-lobed; stamens inserted with corolla, alternate with lobes; anthers distinct or united, 2-celled, opening longitudinally; ovary 2-5-locular; ovules numerous; placentae axile; fruit a capsule, opening by valves or fissures, many-seeded.

Order 43. Vacciniaceae. - Shrubs, deciduous or evergreen; leaves alternate; buds clothed with scales; flowers regular, solitary; calyx 4-5 lobed; corolla campanulate, urceolate or rotate; stamens epigynous, 8-10; anthers with appendages; ovary inferior, 4-5-locular; fruit a berry.

Order 44. Ericaceae. - Shrubs and undershrubs, evergreen, rigid; leaves in whorls or scattered, alternate or opposite; buds naked or scaly; flowers regular or irregular; calyx 4-5-fid; corolla campanulate or urceolate, tubular; stamens hypogynous 5, 8 or 10; anthers opening by apical pores; pollen in tetrads; ovary superior; fruit, a berry, drupe or capsule.

Order 45. Monotropaceae. - Saprophyte; leaves scale-like; stem with scales; flowers solitary, in spikes and racemes; sepals 2-6; petals 3-6; stamens hypogynous, 6-12; ovary 4-6 lobed, style simple; capsule membranous; seeds leathery.

Order 46. Plumbaginaceae. - Herbaceous plants; leaves mainly radical, entire; no stipules; flowers regular, in spikes or heads; calyx 5-cleft, inferior; corolla 5-fid; stamens hypogynous, 5, opposite the petals; styles 5, ovary I-celled; ovule 1, basal; fruit a utricle; seeds inverted.

Order 47. Primulaceae. - Herbaceous plants; leaves radical or cauline; no stipules; flowers regular; calyx inferior, 5-cleft; corolla hypogynous, 4-7-fid; stamens epipetalous; ovary I-celled, free; ovules numerous; placenta free central; style 1; stigma capitate; capsule I-celled.

Order 48. Oleaceae. - Trees or shrubs, deciduous; leaves opposite; no stipules; buds scaly; flowers in trichotomous cymes; calyx gamosepa-lous, inferior, 4-cleft, or absent; corolla 4-partite or absent; stamens 2, hypogynous or epipetalous; ovary 2-celled; style simple or none; ovules 2-3; fruit a berry or samara; seed pendulous.

Order 49. Apocynaceae. - Undershrubs, prostrate, evergreen; leaves opposite or in whorls, entire; flowers regular, solitary; calyx 4-5-fid; corolla hypogynous, 5-cleft; stamens 5, epipetalous; pollen granular; carpels 2, united by styles; stigma 1; fruit 2 follicles.

Order 50. Gentianaceae, - Herbaceous plants; leaves entire, opposite, or whorled, or alternate; no stipules; flowers regular, solitary or in cymes; calyx 4-8-cleft, inferior; corolla 4-8-cleft, hypogynous, rotate, campanulate or funnel - shaped; stamens 4-8, epipetalous; anthers versatile; ovary incompletely 2-locular; placentae parietal; capsule 1-2-celled; seeds very small.

Order 51. Polemoniaceae. - Herbaceous plants; leaves pinnate, alternate or opposite; no stipules; flowers in terminal cymes; calyx inferior, 5-lobed; corolla hypogynous, 5-lobed; stamens 4-8, unequal, epipetalous; ovary 3-locular; stigma 3-fid; ovules, 1 or more in each cell; fruit, a capsule, 3-celled.

Order 52. Boraginaceae. - Herbaceous plants, rough or hairy; leaves alternate; no stipules; flowers regular or sometimes irregular, in scor-pioid cymes; calyx 5-lobed, inferior; corolla hypogynous, 5-lobed, rotate, bell-shaped, tubular or salver-shaped; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary deeply 4-lobed; style simple; fruit of 4 I-seeded nutlets.

Order 53. Convolvulaceae. - Herbaceous twining plants; leaves alternate (none in Cuscuta); no stipules; flowers regular; calyx inferior, 5-lobed; corolla hypogynous, 5-lobed; stamens 5, epipetalous; anthers sagittate; ovary 2-locular, 2 ovules in each cell; style 2-4-fid; capsule 1-4-celled; seeds erect.

Order 54. Solanaceae. - Herbaceous plants or shrubs; leaves alternate, or in unequal pairs; no stipules; flowers regular, in cymes; calyx inferior, 5-cleft; corolla hypogynous, 5-lobed; stamens 5, epipetalous, alternating with corolla lobes; anthers often cohering by tip; ovary 2-locular; ovules numerous; fruit a capsule or berry.

Order55. Scrophulariaceae. - Herbaceousplants, leaves alternate or opposite, or whorled; with stipules; flowers irregular; calyx inferior, 4-5-lobed; corolla often personate, 4-5-lobed; stamens 4, in pairs, 2 or 5, epipetalous; ovary 2-celled; ovules numerous; placentae axile; fruit a capsule, many-seeded, 2-celled.

Order 56. Orobanchaceae. - Herbaceous parasitic plants; leafless, with scales; flowers irregular, in terminal spikes or racemes; calyx 4-5-fid, inferior; corolla hypogynous 2-lipped, 4-5-fid, gaping; stamens 4, in pairs, didynamous, epipetalous; ovary I-locular, of 2 carpels; ovules many; fruit a capsule, I-celled.

Order 57. Lentibulariaceae. - Herbaceous aqua- tic or marsh plants; leaves radical, entire, sometimes with bladders on multifid leaf-segments; no stipules; flowers irregular, solitary, in raceme or corymb; calyx inferior, persistent, 2-lobed or 5-partite; stamens 2, hypogynous or epipetalous; anthers I-celled; ovary I-celled, of 2 carpels, free; stigma of 2 lamellae; fruit a capsule, I-celled; seeds many.

Order 58. Verbenaceae. - Herbaceous plant; leaves opposite or in whorls; no stipules; flowers irregular, in cymes; calyx inferior, tubular, persistent; corolla tubular, hypogynous, 2-lipped; stamens 4, in pairs, unequal, or 2; epipetalous; anthers 2-celled; ovary 4-locular, rounded; style terminal, 1; ovules 4; fruit of 4 nutlets; seeds without albumen.

Order 59. Labiatae (Lamiaceoe). - Herbaceous plants; stems square, leaves in opposite pairs, decussate; no stipules; flowers irregular in whorled cymes; calyx inferior, 5-cleft, 2-lipped; corolla 2-lipped, hypogynous, upper lip entire or 2-fid, lower regular or 3-fid; stamens 4, in pairs, unequal, epipetalous; ovary 4-lobed, 4-locular; fruit of 4 nutlets.

Order 60. Plantaginaceae. - Herbaceous plants, scapigerous; leaves radical, forming a rosette, or alternate; flowers regular, in spikes; calyx 4-lobed; corolla hypogynous, membranous; stamens 4, epipetalous, rarely hypogynous; anthers versatile; ovary 2-4-celled, free; style and stigmas slender; fruit a capsule, circumsciss, membranous; seeds peltate.