Tuberous Thistle (Cnicus Tuberosus, Roth)

The habitat of this plant is meadows, calcareous downs, cliffs, and woods. The rootstock consists of fibrous, spindle-shaped, fleshy tubers. Similar in habit to Meadow Thistle it has no stolons, the stem being erect, round, hairy, leafless above. The leaves are deeply divided nearly to the base, the lobes distant, the stem-leaves stalkless, fringed with hairs, lance-shaped, with coarse small teeth. The flowers are rose-purple, the involucre flattened below, egg-shaped, the bracts closely associated, and smooth. The pappus is feathery. This plant is 1-1/2 ft in height. It flowers in July up till September, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Spotted Cat's Ear (Hypochceris Maculata, L.)

The habitat of this plant is meadows, waste places, chalk and limestone hills, calcareous pastures, sea cliffs, etc. The plant has the rosette habit like the last. The flowering stem is simple or forked, smooth, with few leaves, which are frequently radical only, and spoon-shaped, oblong, toothed, spotted, rough, stalkless, with soft hairs. The flowers are deep yellow, in large heads, the involucre bristly on the back with curled hairs, with numerous slender bracts. The fruit is beaked, the pappus in one row, white, outer absent. The plant is 6 in. to 1 ft. high, and flowers between July and September, being a herbaceous perennial.

Hairy-Leaved Hawkbit (Leontodon Nudicoule, Banks & Solander)

The habitat of this plant is dry, sandy places, gravelly pastures, fields, fen. The plant has the rosette habit. The aerial stem is a single-flowered scape of which there may be several. The leaves are radical and lance-shaped, roughly hairy, wavy, with the lobes bent back occasionally. The flowerheads are yellow, the heads having the involucre smooth, keeled, the edges fringed with hairs, and also down the middle. The fruit has pappus of outside fruits with scales, the inner feathery. The plant is 3-6 in. in height, and flowers in July and August, being a herbaceous perennial.

Rough Hawkbit (Leontodon Hispidutn, L.)

The habitat of this plant is meadows on dry soil, sandy pastures near the sea, mossy ground, waysides, hills, inland. The habit is of the rosette type. The aerial stems are scapes. The leaves are radical, lance-shaped, oblong, roughly hairy, the hairs forked at the tip or stellate, with lobes turned back, the erect scapes single, hairy. The flowerheads are yellow, solitary, glandular at the tip, large, the involucres hairy. The fruit is slender, with brownish-white feathery pappus with an outer row of bristles. The plant is 6-18 in. high, flowering between June and September, being a herbaceous biennial or perennial.

Autumnal Hawkbit (Leontodon Autumnale, L.)

This is a native plant, being found in pastures and meadows, and waste places. The plant has the rosette habit. The scapes or aerial stems are forked above. The radical leaves are lance-shaped, toothed, smooth, tapering at the base. The flowerheads are yellow, large, few, with smooth involucre, or if hairy sparsely so. The fruit is slender, ribbed, with feathery pappus in one row. The plant is 3-24 in. in height. It is in flower from July to October, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Goatsbeard (Tragopogon Pratense, L.)

The habitat of this plant is meadows, pastures, waste places, waysides, railway banks, etc. The habit is erect, more or less grass-like. The stem is bluish-green, smooth, tall, with a milky juice, the leaves wavy, clasping, with swollen sheaths, linear, tapering to a long point, furrowed. The flowerheads are yellow, on thickened flower-stalks, the involucre equalling the florets, the florets enclosed by 8-10 bracts. The fruit is rough, with a long beak and pappus in many rows. The plant is 1-2 ft. in height, and flowers in June and July, being a herbaceous biennial with a long yellow tap-root forked below.

Rough Sow Thistle (Sonchus Asper, Hill)

The habitat of this plant is fields and waste places, and cultivated ground. The habit is erect. It is a brittle, succulent plant, with hollow stems. The leaves are entire or divided to the base, wavy, crisped, with rounded auricles, bent down, and bent back. The flowerheads are yellow, the fruit ribbed lengthways, not wrinkled crossways, The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering in June to August, and is a succulent herbaceous annual.