Heath Rush (Juncus Squarrosus, L.)

The habitat of this plant is moorlands, heaths, wet heaths. The plant has the typical rush habit, and is somewhat tufted. The stem is rigid, erect, simple, flattened, leafless or a scape (the plant in this respect being a rosette plant). The leaves are crowded, numerous, linear, awl-like, channelled, half-round in section, all radical, spreading (hence squarrosus), half as long as the stem, bent-back from the keel, finely furrowed). The flowers, 2-3 in a cluster, are pale, solitary, distant, in an irregular, terminal, corymblike cyme, with erect branches. The bracts have a membranous margin, and are not so long as the flowers. The perianth-segments are blunt, as long as the capsule, ovate to lance-shaped, oblong or acute. The anthers are four times as long as the stalks. The capsule is bluntly 3-angled, shining, pale-brown, blunt, with a short blunt point. The plant is 6-12 in. high, and flowers in July and August, being a herbaceous perennial.

Pigmy Rush (Juncus Pygmceus, Rich. = J. Mutabilis, Lam.)

The habitat of this plant is damp spots. The plant has the rush habit. The stems are tufted, pink when dry. They are simple or only once-branched, slender, round, not septate, more or less leafless, very short. The leaves are radical, bristle-like, faintly jointed, channelled, the stem-leaves solitary, auricled below. The flowers are few, 1-5, more or less stalkless, with ovate bracts, in small clusters. The perianth-segments are membranous, linear to lance-shaped, with a long point, not awned, longer than the capsule, 3-nerved, nearly equal. The capsule is oblong to acute. The seeds are spindle-shaped to pear-shaped. They are long and apiculate. The plant is 1-3 in. in height, flowering from May to July, and is a herbaceous annual.

Small Capitate Rush (Juncus Capitatus, Weig.)

The habitat of this plant is sandy ground, sands which are inundated in winter, and heathy places. The plant has the rush habit. The stems are bristle-like, rigid, grooved, not septate, naked, erect, and simple. The radical leaves are slender, bristle-like, channelled, with short sheaths. They are half as long as the stems. The flowers are in solitary, terminal heads, with bracts with 2-3 or 2-6 flowers. The outer bracts are bristle-like, twice as long as the flowers, the inner smaller, broadly ovate, cristate. The perianth-segments are elliptic to ovate, unequal, awned, the outer ovate to lance-shaped, long-pointed, twice as long as the capsule. There are 3 stamens. The capsule is broadly ovoid with an abrupt point. The plant is 1-4 in. in height, flowering from May to July, and is a herbaceous annual.

Heath Wood Rush (Luzula Erecta, Desv. = Z. Congesta, D.C. = L. Multiflorum, Lej.)

The habitat of this plant is heaths, heathy or wet and turfy places. This species has the usual Wood Rush habit. From the common species this one differs in being larger and stouter. The leaves are linear, hairy. The panicle or cyme consists of numerous, ovate, dense, either stalked or stalkless clusters. The cymes are more contracted, and the flowers more clustered, long, drooping, dark-brown. The perianth-segments are not so broad, being lance-shaped and long-pointed, longer than the capsule. The anther-stalks are more than half as long as the anthers. The anthers are small and short. The capsule is blunt, narrow. The seeds are oblong, about twice as long as broad, with a short appendage below. The plant is 6-18 in. in height, and flowers between April and June. It is a herbaceous perennial.

Pale Wood Rush (Luzula Pallescens, Bess.)

The habit of this species is tufted. The stems are numerous, erect, slender, with 2-3 leaves, narrow, fringed with hairs or hairless. There are 1-3 bracts longer than the cyme. The cyme may be compound with numerous clusters, with slender, suberect, unequal branches. The central cluster is large and stalkless, the others are small, roundish-oblong or oblong, with 4-20 small flowers. The perianth-segments are pale-yellowish-brown in the centre, the outer ones ovate, long-pointed, a little longer than the fruit, the margin incurved near the apex, the inner shorter, nearly blunt-pointed. The stamens are half as long as the outer perianth-segments, the anther-stalks exceeding the anthers. The fruit is dark-chestnut-brown when ripe, the valves including the beak. The seeds are minute. The plant is distinguished from the last by the difference in size between the inner and outer perianth-segments, and in the lighter colour and pale-greenish-brown perianth-segments. The plant is 6-12 in. in height. It is in flower in May and June, and is a herbaceous perennial.