This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this species is cliffs. The stem is simple or branched, leafy, purplish-red, stiffly hairy below, woolly-felted, hairy below. The radical leaves are broad to lance-shaped, narrowed both ends, nearly entire or toothed, hairy below, fringed with hairs. The stem-leaves are 3-7, the lower stalked, lance - shaped to oblong, long - pointed, the upper stalkless, clasping, toothed. The panicle is close, in a forked corymb, the branches nearly erect, divided. The flower-stalks are rather long, slender, woolly-felted, with bracteoles, hairy, glandular. The 3-8 heads are small, shortly cylindrical. The, phyllaries are dark-green, the outer narrow, triangular to lance-shaped, the broader lance-shaped to linear, blunt, the innermost with a pale border, woolly-felted, senescent, hairy, glandular. The ligules are hairless or the inner fringed with hairs. The styles arc yellow. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this species is cliffs. The stem is smooth, hairy. The radical leaves are egg-shaped, not persisting. The stem-leaves are 4-5, the lower broad to lance-shaped, or inversely so, blunt, narrowed to the half-clasping base, the upper linear to lance-shaped, blunt below. The panicle is cymose, corymbose above, the branches erect to spreading, ascending, the upper longer than the acladium. The heads are large, few, 1-5, black, blunt below. The phyllaries are broad to lance-shaped, blunt, the inner with paler border, woolly-felted, glandular, hairy. The styles are yellow, becoming dark. The plant is 10-24 in. high, flowering in August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this species is river-sides. The stem is robust, hairy below, woolly-felted, hairy above. The radical leaves are few, oval, narrowed to the short, winged leaf-stalk, soon fading. The 5-11 stem-leaves are egg-shaped, lance-shaped, toothed, the upper broader, toothed, hairless, dull-green above, paler yellowish-green below, stiffly hairy on the veins and margins. The panicle is nearly terminal, in a corymb or with 2-3, lower, nearly erect branches. The 3-11 heads are nearly round in bud, broad, cylindrical, blunt. The stalks are long, wavy or arching, hoary, hairy. The phyllaries are dark, blunt, the outer egg-shaped to triangular, the inner broad, lance-shaped to linear, the innermost blunt, woolly- felted, senescent, stiffly hairy, glandular. The ligules are tipped with stiff hairs. The styles are livid. The margins of the receptacle pits are raised, toothed. The achenes are dark-brown.
The stem of this species is erect, rigid, simple or branched, hairless or stiff!)' hairy. The radical leaves are egg-shaped to lance-shaped, nearly entire or finely toothed. There are 5-15 stem-leaves, the lower stalked, toothed, the upper stalkless, bract-like above. The panicle is corymbose, with straight, erect to spreading branches. The heads are few, large, blackish-green, rounded below. The flower-stalks are nearly hairless. The phyllaries are blunt, the inner narrower, woolly-felted at the edge, glandular. The styles are yellow with brown hairs. The plant is 1 1/2 to 4 ft. high, flowering from July to September, and is a herbaceous perennial.