Dicentra Bernh. Linnaea 8: 468. 1833.]

Herbs, with dissected leaves, basal in our species, and racemose flowers. Pedicels 2-bracted. Corolla cordate at base; petals 4, in 2 pairs, connivent. slightly coherent, the exterior pair oblong, concave, spurred at the base, spreading at the apex, the inner narrow, clawed, coherent above, crested or winged on the back. Placentae 2; style slender. Capsule oblong or linear, dehiscent to the base by 2 valves. Seeds crested. [Latin, double-hooded.]

A genus of about 16 species, natives of North America and Asia. Type species: Fumaria Cucul-laria L. The original spelling is Bikukulla.

Raceme simple; flowers white or whitish.

Spurs divergent; inner petals minutely crested.


B. Cucullaria.

Spurs short, rounded; inner petals conspicuously crested.


B. canadensis.

Racemes paniculate; flowers pink.


B. eximia.

1. Bicuculla Cucullària (L.) Millsp. Dutchman's Breeches. Soldier's Cap. Monks-Hood. Breeches-Flower

Fig. 1985

Fumaria Cucullaria L. Sp. Pl. 699. 1753. Diclytra Cucullaria DC. Syst. Veg. 2: 108. 1821. Dielytra Cucullaria T. & G. Fl. N. A. 1: 66. 1838. Dicentra Cucullaria Torr. Fl. N. Y. 1: 45. 1843. Bicuculla Cucullaria Millsp. Bull. West Va. Agric. Exp. Sta. 2: 327. 1892.

Delicate, glabrous, arising from a granulate bulbous base. Leaves all basal, pale beneath, slender-petioled, ternately compound, the divisions stalked and finely dissected into linear or oblanceolate segments; scape slender, 5'-10' high; raceme secund, 4-10-flowered; flowers nodding, pedicelled, 6"-8" long, 8"-10" broad at the base, white, or faintly pink, yellow at the summit; spurs widely divergent; inner petals minutely crested.

In woods, Nova Scotia to Minnesota, North Carolina, Missouri and Kansas. Ascends to 4500 ft. in Virginia. Colic-weed. Bachelor's- or little-boy's-breeches. Kitten-breeches. Boys-and-girls. Indian boys-and-girls. White-hearts. Butterfly-banners. April-May.

1 Bicuculla Cucull Ria L Millsp Dutchman s Breeche 327

2. Bicuculla Canadénsis (Goldie) Millsp. Squirrel Or Turkey Corn

Fig. 1986

Corydalis canadensis Goldie, Edinb. Phil. Journ. 6: 329. 1822. Diclytra canadensis DC. Prodr. 1: 126. 1824. Dicentra canadensis Walp. Rep. 1: 118. 1842. B. canadensis Millsp. Bull. West Va. Agric. Exp. Sta. 2: 327. 1892.

Glabrous, the rootstock bearing numerous small tubers. Leaves all basal and nearly similar to those of the preceding species, decidedly glaucous beneath; scape slender, 6'-12' high; raceme 4-8-flowered; flowers nodding, short-pedicelled, 7"-9" long, 5" broad at the base, greenish-white, purplish tinged, slightly fragrant; spurs short, rounded; inner petals prominently crested.

In rich woods, Nova Scotia to Ontario, Minnesota. Virginia, Tennessee, Missouri and Nebraska. Turkey-pea. Colic-weed. Wild hyacinth. April-June.

2 Bicuculla Canad Nsis Goldie Millsp Squirrel Or T 328

3. Bicuculla Eximia (Ker) Millsp. Wild Bleeding-Heart

Fig. 1987

Fumaria eximia Ker, Bot. Reg. 1: pl. 50. 1815.

Diclytra eximia DC. Syst. 2: 109. 1821.

Dicentra eximia Torr. Fl. N. Y. 1: 46. 1843.

Bicuculla eximia Millsp. Bull. West Va. Agric. Exp. Sta. 2: 327. 1892.

Glabrous, somewhat glaucous, weak, 10'-2° high; rootstock scaly. Leaves all basal, larger than those of the other eastern species, ternately parted, the divisions stalked, finely pinnatifid into oblong or ovate segments; scape slender, about equalling the leaves; raceme compound; flowers clustered in cymes, slender-pedicelled, pink, nodding, 8"-10" long, 3"-4" broad at the base; spurs short, rounded, incurved; inner petals with projecting crests.

In rocky places, western New York, south to Georgia and Tennessee along the Alleghanies. Turkey-corn. Stagger-weed. May-Sept.

3 Bicuculla Eximia Ker Millsp Wild Bleeding Heart 329