Erect perennial herbs, from globose or elongated aromatic roots, with a verticil of digitately compound leaves at the summit of the stem. Umbels solitary, terminal, simple. Flowers greenish or white, polygamous. Calyx-limb obscurely 5-toothed. Petals 5, spreading. Stamens 5, alternate with the petals. Styles 2 or 3. Fruit a small drupe-like somewhat flattened berry, enclosing 2 or 3 seeds. [Greek, all-healing.]

About 7 species, of eastern North America and Asia. Type species: Panax quinquefolium L.

Leaflets 5, ovate or obovate, stalked, acuminate.


P. quinquefolium.

Leaflets 3-5, oval, to oblanceolate, sessile, obtuse.


P. trifolium.

2 Panax L Sp Pl 1058 1753 1435

I. Panax Quinquef˛lium L. Ginseng. Red-Berry. Sang

Fig. 3093

Panax quinquefolium L. Sp. Pl. 1058. 1753. Ginseng quinquefolium Wood, Bot. & Flor. 142. 1873.

Glabrous, 8'-15' high. Root fusiform, deep. Petioles 1 1/2-4' long; leaflets 5 (rarely 6-7), stalked, thin, ovate or obovate, acuminate, 2-5' long, 1'-2' wide, irregularly dentate; peduncle slender, 1'-2' long; umbel 6-20-flowered; pedicels 3"-6" long in fruit; flowers about 1" broad; styles usually 2; fruit somewhat didymous, bright crimson, 5" broad.

In rich woods, Quebec to Alabama, Ontario, Minnesota, Nebraska and Missouri. July-Aug. The plant has become rare in most parts of its range by the gathering of its roots for export to China, but is now extensively cultivated in artificial shade.

2. Panax Trif˛lium L. Dwarf Ginseng Or Groundnut

Fig. 3094

Panax trifolium L. Sp. Pl. 1059. 1753. Ginseng trifolium Wood, Bot. & Flor. 142. 1873.

Glabrous, 3'-8' high. Root globose, deep, about i' in diameter, pungent to the taste; petioles 1/2' - 2' long; leaflets 3-5, oval to oblanceolate, sessile, obtuse, usually narrowed at the base, l' - 1 1/2' long, 3"-8" wide, dentate or serrate; peduncles l'-2 1/2' long; pedicels 1"-1 1/2" long in fruit; flowers white, often monoecious, about 1" broad; styles usually 3; fruit mostly 3-angled (or when with 2 styles, didymous), yellow, about 2" broad.

In moist woods and thickets, Nova Scotia to Georgia, west to Ontario, Wisconsin and Iowa. April-June.

2 Panax Trif Lium L Dwarf Ginseng Or Groundnut 1436