This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol2", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Sanicula canadensis L. Sp. Pl. 235. 1753.
S. marylandica var. canadensis Torr. Fl. U. S. 302. 1824.
Rather dull green, 1°-4° high, widely branched, the branches forked, the umbellate fruit-bearing rays only 1"-5" long. Stem leafy; leaves petioled, 3-5-divided; segments cuneate-obovate to narrowly oblong, acute, mucronate-serrate, or incised, often small, but sometimes 3$' long; involucral leaves small, those of the involucels bract-like; staminate flowers few, on pedicels 1" long or less; calyx 1/2" long, parted into linear-lanceolate acute lobes which exceed the minute white petals; fruit short-stipitate, subglobose, 1"-2 1/2" long; the bristles slender; styles short, included; oil-tubes 5; seed dorsally furrowed.
In dry woodlands, New Hampshire to Florida, South Dakota and Texas. June-Aug.
S. trifoliata Bicknell, Bull. Torr. Club 22: 359. 1895.
Stem slender, 1o-2 1/2° high, the branches alternate, the lower often nearly erect, simple or forked into numerous branchlets; umbels of 3-5 often irregular rays 4"-12" long, leaves rather bright green, thin, slender-petioled, 3-divided, the lateral segments often cleft; segments stalked, broadly ovate, or obovate, or the lateral ones rhomboid, acute, coarsely doubly serrate, or incised, the teeth spinulose-cuspidate; staminate flowers few, on slender pedicels about 2" long; calyx i" long, its linear rigid lobes incurved, subulate; petals white, about half as long as the calyx; styles short, included; fruit 3" long, or more; larger oil-tubes 2, with numerous minute ones; seed not sulcate.
In hilly woods, Maine to Ontario, southeastern New York, West Virginia and Indiana. June-July.
3. DA┘CUS [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 242. 1753.
Biennial or annual, mostly hispid-pubescent herbs, with pinnately decompound finely divided leaves, and compound umbels of white or reddish flowers. Involucre of several foliaceous pinnately parted bracts in our species. Involucels of numerous entire or toothed bracts. Calyx-teeth obsolete. Petals obovate, the apex inflexed, those of the outer flowers often dilated and 2-lobed. Stylopodium depressed or none. Umbels very concave in fruit. Fruit oblong, somewhat flattened dorsally. Primary ribs 5, slender, bristly. Secondary ribs 4, winged, each bearing a row of barbed prickles. Oil-tubes solitary under the secondary ribs, and 2 on the commissural side of each carpel. [The ancient Greek name.]
About 25 species, of wide geographic distribution. Type species: Daucus Carota L.