Trees or shrubs, with alternate exstipulate leaves. Flowers regular, perfect, or rarely polygamo-dioecious, clustered, sometimes appearing before the leaves. Pubescence mostly stellate. Calyx more or less adnate to the ovary, 4-8-toothed, or entire. Corolla gamopetalous or polypetalous, the lobes or petals 4-8. Stamens twice as many as the lobes of the corolla or petals, or more, inserted on its tube or base, arranged in 1 series, the filaments monadelphous or 4-5-adelphous; anthers mostly introrse. Disk none. Ovary partly superior, 2-5-celled; ovules solitary or few in each cavity, anatropous; style slender; stigma simple or 2-5-lobed. Fruit a berry or drupe, or often nearly dry, winged in some genera, I-seeded, or 2-5-celled with a seed in each cavity. Endosperm copious, fleshy; embryo usually straight; cotyledons flat.

About 7 genera and 75 species, mostly tropical, most abundant in South America.

Calyx superior, its tube obconic; fruit 2-4-winged.



Calyx nearly inferior, its tube campanulate; fruit globose or oblong.



1. H└LESIA Ellis; L. Syst. Ed. 10, 2: 1044. 1759.

[Mohrodendron Britton, Gard. & For. 6: 463. 1893.]

Small trees or shrubs, more or less stellate-pubescent, with membranous deciduous denticulate or dentate petioled leaves, and large white slender-pedicelled drooping bell-shaped flowers, in lateral fascicles or short racemes, appearing with or before the leaves. Calyx-tube obconic or obpyramidal, 4-5-ribbed, adnate to the ovary, the limb short, 4-toothed. Corolla campanulate, 4-5-cleft or 4-5-parted nearly to the base. Stamens 8-16; filaments flat, more or less monadelphous, slightly adnate to the corolla; anthers oblong. Ovary 2-4-celled; ovules about 4 in each cavity, the lower ascending, the upper pendulous. Fruit dry, oblong, 2-4-winged longitudinally, 1-4-celled, tipped with the style and the minute calyx-teeth, the seed cylindric. [In honor of Stephen Hales, 1677-1761, a distinguished English scientist.]

Three species, natives of southeastern North America, the following typical.

1. Halesia Carolina L. Silver-Bell Or Snow-Drop Tree

Fig. 3309

Halesia Carolina L. Syst. Ed. 10, 1044. 1759. Halesia tetraptera L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 636. 1762. Mohrodendron carolinum Britton, Gard. & For. 6: 463. 1893.

A small tree with maximum height of about 45o and trunk diameter of about 20'. Leaves oval, ovate or ovate-oblong, denticulate, acuminate at the apex, mostly narrowed at the base, dark green and glabrous above when old, pale green and stellate-pubescent beneath, 2'-6' long, 1'-3' wide; flowers in lateral fascicles of 1-5 appearing with the leaves; pedicels filiform, 1/2'-1 1/2' long; calyx at flowering time about 2" long; corolla 6"-9' long; ovary 4-celled; fruit oblong-ellipsoid, 4-winged, 1'-1 1/2' long, usually longer than its pedicel, several times longer than the persistent style.

In woods and along streams, Virginia to Illinois, south to Florida and Alabama. Wood soft, light brown; weight per cubic foot 35 lbs. Calico-wood. Shittim- or Tiss-wood. Bell- or wild olive-tree. March-April.

1 Halesia Carolina L Silver Bell Or Snow Drop Tree 1651

2. STŢRAX [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 444. 1753.

Shrubs or small trees, with alternate leaves, deciduous in our species, and rather large mostly with drooping flowers, in lateral or terminal fascicles or leafy racemes, appearing before or with the leaves. Calyx persistent, nearly inferior, its tube campanulate, adnate to the lower part of the ovary, its limb minutely 5-toothed. Corolla 5-parted or 5-divided, the segments or petals imbricate, convolute or valvate in the bud. Stamens twice as many as the corolla lobes or petals (rarely fewer); filaments flat, monadelphous below or rarely separate, inserted on the base of the corolla; anthers linear. Ovary nearly superior, mostly 3-celled at the base; ovules several in each cavity, ascending; stigma 3-toothed, 3-lobed or capitate. Fruit globose or oblong, nearly dry, coriaceous or crustaceous, commonly only I-seeded, 3-valved at the summit. [Greek name of Storax.]

About 75 species, natives of America, Asia and southern Europe. Besides the following, 2 others occur in the southern and western United States. Type species: Styrax officinalis L.

Foliage and inflorescence glabrous; calyx glandular-scurfy.


S. americana.

Lower surfaces of the leaves and inflorescence canescent or tomentose.

Leaves oblong or oval, 1'-2 1/2' long.


S. pulverulenta.

Leaves obovate or oval, 2'-6' long.


S. grandifolia.