This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Salvia pratensis L. Sp. Pl. 25. 1753.
Perennial, pubescent or puberulent; stem erect, rather stout, simple or little branched, sparingly leafy. Basal leaves long-petioled, ovate, oblong or ovate-lanceolate, irregularly crenulate, obtuse at the apex, rounded or cordate at the base, thick, rugose, 2'-7' long; stem-leaves much smaller, narrower, commonly acute, sessile or nearly so; clusters spicate, the spike elongated, interrupted; calyx campanulate, glandular-pubescent, the teeth of the upper lip minute, those of the lower long, subulate; corolla purple, minutely glandular, its upper lip strongly arched, mostly longer than the lower; lower end of the connective with a small or imperfect anther-sac.
Atlantic Co., N. J. Fugitive or adventive from Europe. May-July.
Perennial, downy; stem stout, branched or simple, erect, 2°-5° high; branches nearly erect. Leaves linear or linear-oblong, dentate to entire, sessile, or narrowed at the base into short petioles, firm, 2'-5' long, 2"-8" wide, the uppermost reduced to small bracts; clusters in long dense terminal spikes, or the lower ones distant; calyx oblong-campanulate, densely and finely woolly, about 3" long, its upper lip entire, obtuse, the lower with 2 ovate acute teeth; corolla blue or white, finely pubescent without, 1' long, its lower lip broad, sinuately 3-lobed, longer than the concave upper one; lower ends of the connective dilated, often adherent to each other, destitute of anther-sacs.
On dry plains, Illinois and Minnesota to Missouri, Kansas, Colorado and Texas. July-Sept.
S. lanceolata Brouss. App. Elench. PI. Hort. Monsp. 15.
1805. Not Lam. ?S. reflexa Hornem. Enum. PI. Hort.
Annual, puberulent or glabrous; stem leafy, usually much branched, erect or diffuse, 6'-18' high. Leaves oblong, linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, petioled, mostly obtuse at the apex and narrowed at the base, crenulate-dentate or entire, 1'-2' long, 2"-5" wide, the upper reduced to lanceolate-subulate, rather persistent bracts; flowers mostly opposite, but sometimes 3-4 together in the terminal spike-like racemes; pedicels shorter than the campanulate calyx; calyx 2"-3" long, its upper lip ovate, entire, the lower 2-cleft, the teeth ovate, mucronate; corolla blue, about 4" long, its lower lip narrow, twice as long as the upper; lower ends of the connectives dilated; style nearly or quite glabrous.
On plains, Indiana to Nebraska, Montana, Colorado, Texas, Arizona and Mexico. Recorded as introduced in Ohio. May-Sept.