It is quite natural that most of the books on Alpine plants have dealt chiefly with the higher zone of vegetation, and that consequently the flowers of the sub-alpine woods and meadows have been somewhat neglected. Therefore it is believed there is room for a book descriptive of the plants of the lower mountains.

In the first chapter it is explained that owing to overlapping, a large number of species characteristic of the sub-alpine regions are also found in the higher pastures; and that many others, of which not a few are British plants, descend to the plains. No book on the subject would be at all representative if both series were not included.

When not otherwise stated, every plant described is believed to be perennial. In the case of a few species short cultural notes are given; while there is a general chapter on the cultivation of Alpine plants.

The heights given in the text refer more especially to the Swiss Alps, though sometimes I have given the approximate altitudinal limits of certain species as observed by myself in other mountain ranges. Naturally in Britain, Scandinavia, etc., most of the Alpine plants common to those countries and Switzerland flourish at much lower elevations.

The terms "Eastern," "Central," and "Western" Alps need some slight explanation. These divisions are roughly those adopted both in the late John Ball's classic Alpine Guide, and in Mr. Coolidge's The Alps in Nature and History (1908). Those two authorities have defined the WESTERN ALPS as extending from the Col de Tenda to the Simplon Pass in southern Switzerland. The Col de Tenda separates the Maritime Alps from the Ligurian Mountains, and carries the high road from Nice to Cuneo and Turin. Thus the Western Alps are chiefly in France and Italy, but they also comprise that part of Switzerland which is south of the Rhone.

The Central Alps include the greater part of Switzerland, north and east of the Simplon; the small portion of Tyrol west of the Reschen Scheideck Pass and the bit of Alpine Lom-bardy to the north.

The Eastern Alps comprise the rest of the Alpine ranges to the east of the Reschen Scheideck and the Stelvio Passes. They are wholly Austrian and Italian', except for the limestone hills of Bavaria in the north.

Among the many books and pamphlets consulted in the preparation of this work I must especially mention the help derived from the Flore de la Suisse by Messrs. Schinz and Wilczek, Mons. Coste's Flore de la France, and Bentham's Handbook of the British Flora, which has been especially useful in framing synopses of the characters of families and genera.

My best thanks are due to my friend Mr. George Flemwell, the author of Alpine Flowers and Gardens, etc., for painting a beautiful series of flowers, which he has done in the course of a busy and eventful year, not undisturbed by illness. These drawings, though reduced in size in the plates, are remarkable for their accuracy of form and colour and for their artistic merit. They were made in many cases from specimens growing in the neighbourhood of Le Planet, above Argentiere in Haute-Savoie. The Swiss frontier is only a few miles distant.

I am indebted to Messrs. Methuen and Co. for permission to reprint the charming poem entitled Hepatica, written by my friend Mr. Alfred Hayes. Finally I must not omit to thank Professor Seward and Dr. C. E. Moss for their kindness in allowing me to freely consult the Library and Herbarium of the Cambridge Botany School.


Cambridge, May, 1912.

Abbreviations Of Authors' Names

A. Br. = Alexander Braun.

Adans. = Adanson.

A. DC. = Alphonse de Candolle.

Ait. = Aiton.

All. = Allioni.

Anders. = Anderson.

Anderss. = Andersson.

Ard. = Arduino.

A. T. or Arv. T. = Arvet-Touvet.

Asch. = Ascherson.

A. et Graeb. = Ascherson et Graebner.

Bab. = Babington.

Bad. = Badarro.

Balb. = Balbis.

Bart, or Bartl. = Bartling.

Bast. = Bastard.

Baumg. = Baumgarten.

Bell. = Bellardi.

Benth. = Bentham.

Berg. = Bergeret.

Bernh. = Bernhardi.

Bert. = Bertolini.

Bess. = Besser.

Bieb. = Marschall von Bieberstein.

Bluff et Fing. = Bluff et Fingerhut.

Boiss. = Boissier.

Boiss. et Reut. = Boissier et Reuter.

Bor. = Boreau.

Briq. = Briquet.

Brot. = Brotero.

R. Br. = Robert Brown.

Burn. = Burnat.

Burn, et Grem. = Burnat et Gremli.

Cass. = Cassini.

Chab. = Chabert.

Chod. = Chodat.

Clairv. = Clairville.

Coss. et G. = Cosson et Germain.

Crep. = Crepin.

Curt. = Curtis.

Cuss. = Cusson.

DC. = De Candolle (A. P.).

Degl. = Degland.

De Not. = De Notaris.

Desf. = Desfontaines.

Desr. = Desrousseaux.

Desv. = Desvaux.

Dum. = Dumortier.

Dun. = Dunal.

Ehrh. = Ehrhart.

Endl. = Endlicher.

Engel. = Engelmann.

Fenz. = Fenzl.

Fisch. = Fischer.

Forsk. = Forskal.

Fouc. = Foucaud.

Fouc. et R. = Foucaud et Rouy.

Fr. = Fries.

Froel. = Froelich.

Gaertn. = Gaertner.

Gaud. = Gaudin.

Genev. = Genevier.

G. G. or Gren. et Godr. = Grenier et Godron.

Gmel. = Gmelin.

Godr. = Godron.

Good. = Goodenough.

Griseb. = Grisebach.

Guss. = Gussone.

Hack. = Hackel.

Hall. - Haller.

Hartm. = Hartmann.

Hausm. = Hausmann.

Heg. = Hegetschweiler.

Heynh. = Heynhold.

Hoff. or Hoffm. = Hoffmann.

Hook. = Hooker.

Huds. = Hudson.

Jacq. = Jacquin.

Jord. = Jordan.

Juss.=Jussieu (A. L. de).

K. = Koch.

Kalt. = Kaltenbach.

Kern. = Kerner.

Kit. = Kitaibel.

K. et S. = Koch et Sonder.

Krock. = Krocker.

Kiitz. = Kiitzing.

L. or Linn. = Linnaeus (Linne).

Lach. = Lachenal.

Lagg. = bagger.

Lam. or Lamk. = Lamarck.

Lamb. = Lambert.

Lapeyr. = Lapeyrouse.

Lej. = Lejeune.

Less. = Lessing.

Leyss. = Leysser.

L'Herit. = L'Heritier.

Lightf. = Lightfoot.

Lindl. = Lindley.

Lk. = Link.

Loefl. = Loefling.

Lois. or Loisel. = Loiseleur.

M. B. or M. Bieb. = Marschall von Bieberstein.

Merc. = Mercier.

C. A. Mey. = Carl Anton Meyer.

E. Mey. = Ernst Meyer.

Michx. = Michaux.

Mich. = Micheli.

Mill. = Miller.

P. J. M. = P. J. Muller.

Mert. et K. = Mertens et Koch.

M. et K. = Mertens et Koch.

Murr. = Murray.

Neck. = De Necker.

Not. = Notaris (de).

Nym. = Nyman.

Panz. = Panzer.

Pari. = Parlatore.

P. Br. = Patrick Browne.

P. B. or P. Beauv. = Palisot de Beauvois.

Perr. et Song. = Perrier et Songer.

Pers. = Persoon.

Peterm. = Petermann.

Poir. = Poiret.

Poll. = Pollich.

Pourr. = Pourret.

R. Br. = Robert Brown.

Rchb. or Reichb. = Reichenbach.

Retz. = Retzius.

Reut. = Reuter.

Reyr. = Reynier.

Rich. = Richard.

Rottb. = Rottboell.

Rupp. = Ruppius.

R. et S. = Roemer et Schultes.

Salisb. = Salisbury.

Saut. = Sauter.

Schimp. = Schimper.

F. Schulz. = Friedr. Schultz.

Sch. Bip. = Schultz Bipontinus.

Schk. = Schkuhr.

Schleich. = Schleicher.

Schleid. = Schleider.

Schult. = Schultes.

Scop. = Scopoli.

Seb. et Maur. = Sebastiani et Mauri.

Ser. = Seringe.

Shuttle. = Shuttleworth.

Sibth. = Sibthorp.

Sieb. = Sieber.

Sm. =Smith.

Spr. or Spreng. = Sprengel.

Steph. = Stephani.

Sternbg. = Sternberg.

Steud. = Steudel.

Sw. = Swartz.

Ten. = Tenore.

Thom. = Thomas.

Thuill. = Thuiller.

Thunbg. = Thunberg.

Tin. = Tineo.

Tiss. = Tissiere.

Tourne. = Tournefort.

Trin. = Trinius.

Urv. = d'Urville.

Vail. = Vaillant.

Vauch. = Vaucher.

Vig. = Viguier.

Via = Villars.

Vis. = Visiani.

Viv. = Viviani.

Wahl. or Wahlen. = Wahlenberg.

Wallr. = Wallroth.

Weigl. = Weigel.

Wettst. = de Wettstein.

Willd. = Willdenow.

W. et K., W. et Kit., Waldst. et Kit. = Waldstein et Kitaibel.

W. et N. = Weihe et Nees.

With. = Withering.

Wulf. = Wulfen.

Zahl. = Zahlbruckner.